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      安龍縣鄉鎮中學英語教學現狀調查研究

      發布時間:2023-06-28 10:27
      CONTENTS
      Abstract in English I
      Abstract in Chinese IV
      Chapter 1 Introduction 1
      1.1Research Background 1
      1.2Research Objectives 2
      1.3Research Significance 2
      1.4Organization of the Thesis 3
      Chapter 2 Literature Review 4
      2.1Related Studies Abroad 4
      2.2Related Studies at Home 6
      2.3Theoretical Framework 10
      Chapter 3 Research Design 12
      3.1Research Questions 12
      3.2Research Methods 12
      3.3Research Participants 13
      3.4Research Procedures 13
      Chapter 4 Results and Analysis 15
      4.1Results and Analysis of the Questionnaires 15
      4.2Interview Results and Discussion on Influential Factors 32
      4.3Summary 58
      Chapter 5 Conclusion 60
      5.1Major Findings 60
      5.2Implications 61
      5.3Limitations 64
      5.4Suggestions for Further Study 64
      References 66
      Appendix 1: Questionnaire 71
      Appendix 2: Outline of the Interview 77
      Chapter 1 Introduction
      1.1Research Background
      Rural English teaching reform is the inevitable choice of new curriculum reform. Combining with the previous experiences and reality of curriculum reform, China has comprehensively launched the New Curriculum Reform to promote the Quality Education in the new century. A great change has taken place in the goal, structure, content, implementation approach, evaluation and management system since the basic courses were reformed. The starting of new curriculum reform provides opportunities for the development of basic education, but also brings new challenges to teaching. The development of rural English teaching closely relates to the development of rural education since English has been an important part of the basic education course in China. Both rural and urban schools promote the implementation of new curriculum reform, but the implementation level and the results are quite different, especial for English teaching. The quality and effect of English teaching in rural areas are far less than those in urban, also far from meeting the goal of new curriculum reform because of some prominent teaching problems and cognitive pitfalls during English teaching.
      In China, although the investments and policies in rural education have been increasing year by year, some advanced teaching equipment has been put into rural schools, such as network and Class Access to ICTs. Now every rural school has installed Class Access to ICTs multimedia teaching equipment in Anlong County under the help of government since 2016, which is a great change for rural teaching. However, the investment of advanced teaching equipment has not promoted the improving of rural English teaching obviously comparing with the past. Therefore, under the new background, it observes our thinking of how to improve the quality of rural English teaching and promote the balanced development of compulsory education in China. We need to study the problems in rural English teaching and put forward effective solutions to promote the developing of rural English teaching.
      Statistics of many high schools and college entrance examinations show that English has become a main obstacle for rural students. Four years' English teaching experience in rural township middle school promotes the author to do this research. The thesis mainly investigates the students and English teachers in township junior middle schools in Anlong through questionnaires and interviews to find out the teaching problems and reasons, then based on the rural English teaching practice, put forward suggestions for improving rural students' English learning ability, and further promote the whole rural English teaching development.
      1.2Research Objectives
      This thesis studies on English teaching in township junior middle schools, takes teachers and students as the main research objects in Anlong County, further digs out the causes through the analysis of the problems existing in the rural English teaching practice and puts out some effective measures to solve the rural English teaching problems. Studies on rural English teaching make it possible to get more supports and more education resources and promote the development of rural English teaching.
      1.3Research Significance
      Township junior middle schools, as an important part of junior middle schools, play an irreplaceable role in implementing new educational concepts and realizing quality education. Through the study of English teaching characteristics and problems in townships, the thesis also provides some effective measures for the new curriculum reform and theoretical supports and enlightenment for the development of English teaching in townships.
      Studying English has been an important part of for Chinese students during their junior middle schools, high schools, universities, and even for lifetime English learning. However, the quality of English education in townships is far behind that of the urban cities due to its remote location, social culture, lack of professional English teachers, policies and other factors. Students have no chance to touch and use English except examination. For those who are failed in English exam, the results of English exam become an obstacle for their further study because English is one of the main subjects in the Entrance Exam for high schools or universities. Improving the quality of English teaching has been an essential part of the development of teaching quality in township middle schools. Based on the investigation and analysis of the current situation of English teaching and the existing problems in English teaching in Anlong township junior middle schools, the understanding of the current situation of English teaching in township middle schools, the existing problems and its causes, This thesis provides relevant basis and reference for the administrative department of education to carry out relevant policies to promote the development of English teaching and English teaching reform in township junior middle schools.
      1.4Organization of the Thesis
      The thesis includes five chapters:
      The first chapter is introduction, which mainly explains the research background, research objectives, research significance and organization of this thesis.
      The second chapter is literature review, summarizing experts and scholars' researches on foreign language teaching abroad and scholars' discussion on rural English teaching at home.
      The third chapter is research design of the thesis, including research questions, research methods, research participants and research procedures.
      The fourth chapter is research results and analysis. Firstly, analyzing the English teaching in 9 township junior middle schools in Anlong County, teaching problems, such as the shortage of professional English teachers, teaching counts without considering the rural situation and unscientific teaching evaluation exist in English teaching in this area. Secondly, analyzing the factors affecting the development of English teaching in township junior middle schools, they are the outdated concept of English education, less investment in rural education and students lacking of English learning motivation. Finally, some suggestions are given for English teaching in township junior middle schools in Anlong County, such as emphasis on English education in rural areas, increase educational investment in township junior middle schools and strengthen the construction of rural English teachers.
      The last chapter is the conclusion which includes major findings, implications, limitations and suggestions for further research.
      Chapter 2 Literature Review
      2.1Related Studies Abroad
      A language is considered foreign if it is learned largely in the classroom and is not spoken in the society where the teaching occurs (Aleidine, 2015). Foreign language education started early in foreign countries, especially in some immigrant countries, such as American, Singapore and German. In traditional language teaching classroom, also called teacher-centered classrooms, teachers are active and in the role of information giver and learner is the person who receives the information.
      Teaching/learning a foreign language is a complicated procedure that is affected by many factors such as teachers, learners, individual differences, learning styles, etc. Teachers have an important role to organize every step of this procedure, what to teach, when to teach, how to teach, etc. Learners are another important part as each learner has a different learning styles and backgrounds that affect his/her learning (Fahritdin, 2017). It is known that each student has different learning style and pace. One can learn by memorizing while the other can learn by writing, etc. Individual differences have been a remarkable point in language learning as in the other fields of education. Teachers should take these differences into account as they affect the learners' way of learning, their learning styles. As MacIntyre (2014) put it eloquently that many language educators are aware of the importance of improving individual learners' experiences of language learning by helping the to develop and maintain their motivation, perseverance, and resiliency, as well as positive emotions necessary for the long-term undertaking of learning a foreign language. In addition, teachers also widely recognize the vital role played by positive classroom dynamics amongst learners and teachers, especially in settings in which communication and personally meaningful interactions are foregrounded. Jean (2018) suggests that teachers should seek to light the students' fire by being engaging, by creating interest in the FL and by using it a lot in class rather than worry too much about students feeling cold. Once the right emotional temperature is reached, students will forget about the cold and will jump into action, reaching their own optimal temperature.
      Laura (2018) states that language as a living organism has always been liable to change. As the areas of new technologies have stabilized and articulated, language users tend not to cultivate the high registers of language, choosing instead a more simple approach of communication by using more gestures or body language than words and their sophisticated semantics. The perception and understanding of the world around us seems to be more adequate by using our senses. People's behavior has always been visually-oriented. The power of visuals cannot be denied in the teaching-learning process. They are effective tools that help learners retrieve information and make it more concrete. While visualizing and interpreting pictures of any type, students are free to express themselves and explore the new elements in their own way, while teachers' subjectivity fails to interfere. All things considered, visuals play an essential role at all levels of education.
      The need for life-long learning is highly required in the teaching profession. The teachers are supposed to become academic leaders (Rose, 2002). An educator is required to do research and use the classroom as the best place to test the educational knowledge (Stenhouse, 1981).The teacher must have rich knowledge of the subject to foster students' conceptual understanding. It includes the understanding of central facts and concepts and their inter-relationships (Ball, 1990). Eash & Lane (1985) stated that faculty knowledge updating refers to developing an advanced level of knowledge about teaching and research in a particular in collaboration with others. Other than this, individual research, observational visits to other institutions, attending formal workshops, conferences and intensive participation in activities relating to the subject, contents and teaching methods are also vital sources for updating knowledge (Richter et al., 2011). Seezink & Poell (2011) identified four activities for acquiring new knowledge; reading, experimenting, reaction and collaboration. First three are individual in nature and fourth is a group activity.
      As Binks-Cantrell et al. (2012) claimed If EFL teachers would have appropriate teacher education on acknowledging the basic language constructs, they may be more confident to teach the language information, which in turn will be an efficient teacher to help the struggling readers overcome their difficulties.
      Based on the studies about foreign language teaching abroad, foreign countries have higher demands both for language teachers' professional knowledge and teaching abilities. Teacher should be a teaching researcher, language educators are aware of the importance of improving individual learners' experiences of language learning by helping the to develop and maintain their motivation, perseverance, and resiliency, as well as positive emotions necessary for the long-term undertaking of learning a foreign language. During the language teaching procedure, teacher just be a guider. However, English is not only a compulsory subject from elementary grades but also one of the most important subjects for the students' higher education entrance exam in China. Thus, it is very important for the English learners in EFL contexts not to be failing in early grades, nor lose interest in English learning (Han Suk Bae et al., 2019). Without having knowledge on the basic language constructs, the English learners China may not be successful in English learning. So English teachers, especially in township junior middle schools in China, face two serious difficulties, that is to create a relaxing classroom foreign language learning environment and help students get higher grades because of the matriculation exam. Some research finding on foreign language teaching and learning are worth of drawing.
      2.2Related Studies at Home
      Some scholars study the English teaching from the comparison between the urban and rural differences since the new curriculum reform. Many in-service rural English teachers put forward some teaching confusions and experiences from their own teaching experiences. Some experts concern about the rural English teaching problems from the perspective of education research. They put forward some creative English teaching designs and teaching methods, etc. some scholars research how to mobilize the enthusiasm of students in English teaching, how to combine the primary and secondary schools English better and English teachers' professional development. The variety contents of the research not only provide some references for this thesis but also the author's research content. Searching the keywords “rural English teaching” on the CNKI.net, those studies can be classified into the following aspects.
      2.2.1Study on rural English teachers
      The problem of rural English teachers has always been concerned by scholars in the rural primary and secondary schools English teaching. The restriction of various conditions limits the rural English teachers' professional development and self-development and influences the rural English teachers' integrated quality. Rural English teachers' development directly determines the quality of education and teaching.
      Tian (2013) researches the qualities of rural English teachers and points out that the development of rural English teachers, especial for their teaching level has become an urgent requirement of improving education quality comprehensively, promoting the balanced development of rural compulsory education and ensuring rural students' compulsory education. Tao (2014) investigates 142 English teachers from rural primary schools in Guizhou Province by questionnaire and interview. The findings reveal some problems on the teachers' educational background, professional titles, professional abilities, teaching methods and strategies, their understanding on the reform of new curriculum, etc. pointing out that the government and the foreign language education should pay more attention to the rural primary and secondary school English teachers. In order to improve the basic English education level comprehensively in Guizhou Province, it is urgent to improve the professional abilities, the current situations of rural English teachers and rural English teaching qualities. Yang (2015) investigates the autonomous development awareness, the autonomous development conception, the autonomous development conception and the autonomous development behaviors of rural secondary school English teachers. Through investigation, it is discovered that the rural junior secondary school English teachers have different problems in autonomous development, such as weak awareness of autonomous development, lagged autonomous development conception, deficiency in autonomous development planning, to-be-strengthened autonomous development behaviors, low capacity for scientific research and defective reflective ability. Kang (2017) discusses the present situation of rural English teaching and English teachers. Aiming at the existing problems of English teaching in rural areas, the continuing education of rural English teachers, put forward a serious of countermeasures: make full use of Internet resources, narrowing the gap between urban and rural areas; make full use of spare time to continue self- improvement; make full use of social resources to improve the level of rural English teachers.
      Above all, in the rural areas, the widely existing problems about rural English teachers are the shortage of English teachers, the development of professional qualities and the shortage of teaching and researching capability. However, those studies on rural English teaching are all based on the lack of modern technology teaching equipment in rural schools, in the new ages, those questions about how to make full use of Internet resources and how to continue self-improvement do not have a further study in rural areas.
      2.2.2Study on rural primary and secondary schools' English education
      Some scholars study on the current teaching situations, problems, reasons and part of countermeasures of rural primary and secondary school teachers. Li (2015) analyzes the questionnaire system and the problem of English teaching in rural junior secondary school, suggesting and discussing from four aspects: educational theory innovation, administrative management, educational security and social environment. Qu & Fu (2016) analyze the situation and countermeasures of English primary education in rural areas from the perspective of educational equality and find out the problems of the shortage of teachers and students, the lack of learning interest and the old equipment existing in rural areas, then put forward raising the awareness of the importance of English primary education, developing economy energetically and increasing the input of primary education in rural areas, and adjusting the policy and fortifying the educational management. Considering the shortage of English teachers in western country of China, Kang (2017) suggests building school unions, i.e. sister schools. Teachers from alliance schools can learn from each other and improve the teaching abilities. Constructing the Long-Term Effect of Visiting Mechanism, alliance schools provide the new teaching concept and methods to township junior middle schools to develop the education together and balance the education gap between cities and countries. Ma & Wang (2018) give an analysis on the current English education of rural primary and secondary schools from the rural English teachers, professional levels and teaching resources, and put forward some feasible strategies to facilitate rural English education based on One Belt and One Road. More training opportunities and models need to be provided to rural English teachers. More importantly, rural English teachers should set up the idea of life-long learning to improve personal abilities.
      The present studies on rural English education mostly stay in the theory analysis or teachers' own teaching experiences, lack of investigation and empirical research. Most research results are suitability but some researches are actuality for few studies based on the actual investigation, interview and empirical research under the background of new curriculum reform and the rural English teaching realities. Some studies on the rural English teaching problems, causes and countermeasures of analysis can be more specific, such as national administrative departments, social and teaching aspects. The problems of rural English education are connected with other courses and have influences on other areas and fields. So the study on rural English education, especial for the compulsory education, should be increased and deeply researched.
      Nowadays, the investments and policies in rural education have been increasing year by year; some advanced teaching equipment has been put into rural schools, such as network and Class Access to ICTs, which is a great change for rural teaching. However, the investment of advanced teaching equipment has not promoted the improving of rural English teaching obviously comparing with the past. Therefore, under the new background, it observes our thinking of how to improve the quality of rural English teaching and promote the balanced development of compulsory education in China. We need to study the problems in rural English teaching and put forward effective solutions to promote the developing of rural English teaching.
      2.3Theoretical Framework
      2.3.1The theory of language acquisition
      The theory of language acquisition holds that people learn language naturally by contacting or inputting in the corresponding language environment. Chomsky put forward in 1950s that children are born with a “language acquisition device” adapted to language learning. His theory has been accepted by many linguists, and some theoretical models of second language acquisition have been put forward based on it. Among them, the most influential theory of second language acquisition at the end of the 20th century is Krashen's “monitor theory”. Krashen believes that second language acquisition involves two different processes: acquisition process and learning process. The so-called “acquisition” means that the learner unconsciously absorbs the language through the communication practice with the outside world and uses the language fluently and correctly without consciousness. “Learning” refers to the process of consciously studying and understanding a language in a rational way. It believes that people who have mastered a certain language through “acquisition” can communicate easily and fluently in the language. However, those who have mastered a certain language through “learning” can only use the rules of the language to monitor the language itself.
      Krashen (1982) analyzed second language learning from the perspective of “acquisition” and “learning”, emphasizing the role of understanding meaning in language learning. Language structure is established on the basis of understanding content, which reflects the importance of language communication from the side. Students-centered teaching methods should be advocated in English teaching. This distinction helps to understand the differences between mother tongue and foreign language or second language learning, enriches language cognitive theory and provides a theoretical basis for English teaching in rural areas. He also believes that people's acquisition of knowledge of language structure can be carried out in sequence. He points out that no matter whether people acquire their mother tongue or a second language or a foreign language, the structure of grammatical knowledge is regular. Language learning should focus on understanding the meaning of the learned materials rather than paying too much attention to the understanding of grammatical structure.
      The theory of language acquisition is also a reference for middle school English teaching in rural areas of our country. In English classroom teaching, teachers should not pay too much attention to the explanation of grammar knowledge, but pay more attention to the students' understanding of the content of teaching materials and improve the students' comprehensive language use ability.
      2.3.2The Theory of language transfer
      Language transfer refers to the influence caused by the commonness and difference between the target language and any other language that has been or has not been acquired completely before (Odlin, 1989). When learning a second language, learners express their thoughts by means of the pronunciation, meaning, structural rules or habits of their mother tongue when using the second language. It includes not only linguistic influences such as pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar and semantics, but also influences from factors other than language such as thinking mode, cultural tradition and social history. Lado (1957) believes that in the process of second language acquisition, learners rely extensively on their mother tongue and often transfer the language form, meaning and culture related to mother tongue to second language acquisition.
      In China's ethnic minority areas, there are usually their own ethnic languages and scripts. Therefore, both ethnic minority languages and Chinese have an impact on English learning, and the impact of the first and second languages will cause positive and negative transfer to the third language. Especially for the local culture, students have less chance to use or speak English in townships, which result that English teachers are faced with how to create a language atmosphere and make students have interests in English learning. Integrating local culture into English class is a suitable way and resonating with students.
      Chapter 3 Research Design
      In order to investigate the current situation of English teaching in township junior middle schools in Anlong County, this chapter gives a brief introduction of research design in regard of research questions, research methods, research participants and research procedures.
      3.1Research Questions
      The research aimed at answering the following two questions through investigating the current situation of English teaching in 9 township junior middle schools in Anlong County.
      (1)What are the main problems in English teaching in township junior middle schools?
      (2)What are the main factors that influence English teaching development in township junior middle schools?
      3.2Research Methods
      Two research methods, questionnaire and interview, are taken to collect data and information in the investigation.
      3.2.1Questionnaire
      According to some basic concepts and requirements proposed in the English Curriculum Standard 2017, referring to some studies on the present situation of rural English teaching and listening to my supervisor, Mr. Dai's suggestions, the questionnaires have been made into three parts which shown in the appendix. Questionnaires are mainly designed for students, teachers and parents. Student questionnaire includes fifteen questions which are mainly designed from students' attitudes, interests and difficulties in English learning; teacher questionnaire includes twenty-six questions that is designed from teachers' academic qualifications, language abilities and knowledge structures. About parents, there are ten questions are designed for them to investigate their opinions on English in rural areas.
      The mainly form of the questionnaires are single-choice, with a small number of multi-choice questions. All participants fill in the questionnaires anonymously.
      Question 1 and 4 in students' questionnaire plays two roles, one is to investigate students' opinion on English, and the other is to test the validity and reliability of the questionnaire.
      3.2.2Interview
      27 English teachers are interviewed among the 68 English teachers in township junior middle schools. Every 3 English teachers are interviewed in each school to collect their ideas and suggestions about English teaching in townships. Among the 27 interviewed English teachers, 9 English teachers are interviewed by cellphone for the factor of distance. The contents of the interview which is shown in appendix 2 are mainly about their opinions on English teaching and suggestions for English teaching in township junior middle schools.
      3.3Research Participants
      Research participants focus on students and English teachers in 9 township junior middle schools (from Grade 7 to Grade 9) in Anlong County. 68 English teachers are all investigated in Anlong Township junior middle schools. The number of students in each school is collected based on the Final Examination which held by Anlong County in 2018. The number of students in every school is at the range of 600 to 800. Based on the number, 100 students are chosen randomly in each grade, thus 300 students are chosen to answer the questionnaire in each school. In total, 2700 students are investigated by answering the questionnaire and get 2685 valid questionnaires finally. In order to know about parents' attitudes about English in rural areas, 100 parents are investigated in Qianxiang rural areas.
      3.4Research Procedures
      3.4.1Questionnaires Collection
      With the help of colleagues and friends, the questionnaires are given out successfully. Especially thanks for my colleague, and also my friend Zhang Qing, a physic teacher in Qianxiang middle school, he provides me much help during the questionnaire giving out in each school. He drives me to another 8 middle schools and helps me to get in touch with some schools' leaders and teachers and tells them our
      purposes, then the questionnaires can be given to the students successfully and English teachers are interviewed prosperously. It takes about 2 days to give out and return the questionnaires with the help of my dear colleagues and friends. More over, sincerely thanks Miss Wei for helping me to care for my classes so that I can go to other schools do the questionnaires investigation and interviews.
      3.4.2Data Collection
      2700 students are investigated by answering the questionnaire and 2685 valid questionnaires are collected finally, at the same time, 100 questionnaires about parents from Qianxiang rural areas are collected. 2785 questionnaires are collected totally, and then 100 students from Class 1, Class 2 and Class 3 are invited to help collect and arrange the questionnaires one by one.
      3.4.3Data Analysis
      Data analysis Depends on Microsoft Excel and is mainly presented in table, column and line chart. According to the collected data, English teacher questionnaire analyzes English teachers' academic qualification, age, teaching age, knowledge structure, language competence, class teaching arrangement, professional title structures and so on. Student questionnaire mainly analyzes their language abilities, the frequency of joining English activities and students' attitude towards English. Parent questionnaire analyzes parents' opinions on English in rural areas. Providing reliable data support for writing the thesis.
      Through the analysis of the questionnaires of teachers and students in Anlong county township junior middle schools, the data obtained from the investigation is mainly processed by the percentage calculation method and further understand the current situation of English teaching in township junior middle schools in Anlong County, find out the existing problems and deficiencies, reasons, and then put forward corresponding countermeasures to improve the quality of English teaching in township junior middle schools.
      Chapter 4 Results and Analysis
      The data collected from the investigation is presented and discussed on the aspect of current situation and problems of English teaching in township junior middle schools. Factors that influence the development of English teaching in township junior middle schools will be further analyzed and some suggestions are put forward for English teaching in township junior middle schools in this chapter.
      4.1Results and Analysis of the Questionnaires
      The results and analysis of the current situation and problems of English teaching in township junior middle schools refer to distribution of schools, English teaching achievement, teachers ( academic qualifications, language abilities and knowledge structures) and students (attitudes, interests and difficulties in English learning).
      4.1.1Distribution of Township junior middle schools in Anlong County
      Anlong County locates in the junction of Guizhou and Guangxi provinces, with a land area of 2237.6 square kilometers, 187 villages in12 towns. and total population of 480 thousand, inhabited by Han, Buyi, Miao, Gelao, Yi, Hui, Li, Zhuang and other ethnic minorities, accounting for 47.25% of the total population. There are totally 9 rural middle schools in Anlong County.
      Table 4.1 Distribution of Rural Middle Schools in Anlong County
      School Qianxiang Xinglong Puping Sayu Dushan Getang Longshan Haizi Wanfenghu
      Distance from the city(km) 12 17 20 23 30 32 39 47 51
      Teachers
      (2018) 49 51 73 50 53 53 66 51 31
      Students
      (2018) 667 689 992 690 835 851 812 624 385
       
      Among those 9 rural middle schools, two schools are within20 kilometers away from the city, three schools are 20-30 kilometers from the city and four schools are over 30 kilometers away from the city. Those middle schools within 20 kilometers away from the city suffer the most serious loss of students. Some students, especially for those excellent students, choose to go to the urban schools.
      Now every school has installed Class Access to ICTs multimedia teaching equipment in all schools under the help of government since 2016. In a way, teaching equipment has gradually met with the modern teaching development in townships.
      4.1.2English Teaching Achievement in Township Junior Middle Schools in Anlong County
      The unified examination of High School Entrance Examination is a very formal exam for Grade 9 students in Qianxinan Buyi and Miao Autonomous Prefecture. This part shows the average scores English in Senior High School Entrance Examination from 2014 to 2018 in Township Junior Middle Schools and mainly analyzes students' knowledge structure scores in 2018.
      Table 4.2 Average Score of English in Senior High School Entrance Examination
      from 2014 to 2018 in Township Junior Middle Schools in Anlong County 1
      School 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
      Qia nxia ng 49.24 41.45 49.74 50.48 48.19
      Xi nglo ng 41.92 38.34 47.94 61.78 59.63
      Pup ing 59.90 43.46 58.96 58.98 54.89
      Sayu 45.38 48.83 45.87 58.85 56.93
      Dushan 71.50 70.88 74.19 83.79 82.12
      Geta ng 61.54 53.90 46.66 49.37 50.63
      Longshan 55.19 51.85 64.15 59.93 53.55
      Haizi 37.83 58.61 47.3 59.01 50.21
      Wanfen ghu 53.92 38.22 34.92 48.16 53.59
      In total 52.94 49.5 52.19 58.93 56,64
      Chart 4.1Average Scores of English in Township Junior Middle Schools from 2014 to
       
       
      2018 2
       
       
      From the table 4.2 and chart 4.1, Anlong township junior middle schools have not achieved a satisfactory result in English in Senior High School Entrance Examination in the past four years. Only Dushan Middle School obtains a good examination result in English teaching, with 83.79 the highest average score in 2017, a relative pretty result in rural areas. With a total score of 150 points, the average scores of the whole township junior middle schools are increasing year by year but always between 40 and 60 points.
      Now every school has installed Class Access to ICTs Multimedia teaching equipment in all schools under the help of government in Anlong County since 2016. Each classroom equips with a Multimedia and Wifi Network, however, comparing the average score in 2016 to 2018 with that in 2014 and 2015, the average scores do not increase obviously in the 9 schools after the investment of the modern teaching equipment, some schools even have a trend of decreasing, such as Getang Middle School and Wanfenghu Middle School. The quality of English teaching does not get a improving trend with the investment of new teaching equipment in townships, which is a problem worth of deeply thinking and reflecting for all teachers.
      Table 4.3 students' English Knowledge Structure Analysis in 2018
      Knowledge structure
      Average score/ score rate communication
      (20 points) Grammar (13 points) Vocabularies/ phrases (27 points) Reading comprehension (30 points) Sentence structure (30 points) writing
      (30points)
      Qianxiang 12.4 60% 5.5 42% 7.5 33% 10.4 35% 8.7 29% 6 20%
      Xinglong 14 70% 6.0 46% 9.2 40% 12.4 41% 11.4 38% 8.7 29%
      Puping 12.6 63% 5.9 45% 9.3 40% 12.7 42% 9.5 32% 7.8 26%
      Sayu 14.1 71% 6.4 49% 6.5 28% 11.4 38% 11.4 38% 6.9 23%
      Dushan 16.1 81% 8.3 64% 13.5 59% 17.2 58% 16.4 55% 12.1 40%
      Getang 11.1 56% 5.4 41% 7.7 33% 11 37% 8.8 29% 5.3 18%
      Longshan 13.5 67% 6.3 48% 9 39% 11.7 39% 10.2 34% 7.4 25%
      Haizi 14.5 73% 6.7 52% 8.7 38% 11.2 37% 12.1 40% 5.6 19%
      Wanfenghu 12.1 60% 4.9 38% 7 30% 12 40% 8.5 28% 3.7 12%
      In total 13.4 67% 6.2 47% 8.7 38% 12 41% 10.8 36% 7.1 24%
       
      Take the English scores of High School Entrance Examination in township junior example, the content of English test include communication, grammar, vocabulary and phrases, reading comprehensive, sentence structure and writing. According to the analysis of scores in each part, students' English knowledge structure still at a low stage, they are facing several problems in English learning.
      Firstly, poor knowledge of English grammar and sentence structure, students get a better score in communication compared with other test parts, average score is 13.4 where the total score is 20, so it shows that students grasp daily communicative words well. In the test of grammar, in the 13-point grammar test, students only reach
      6.2average score and the score rate is only 47%, which shows that students still face many difficulties in English grammar learning. In the test of sentence structure and sentence meaning understanding, the average score of the 30-point test is 10.8, with a score rate of 36%, which reflecting students' insufficient understanding of English sentences.
      Secondly, short of vocabularies and pharoses. In the test part of vocabulary and phrases, the average score rate is only 38%, and in the 27-point vocabulary and phrase test, the average score of students is 8.7 a lower score rate. English vocabulary and phrase learning is one of the major contents in English learning, they are the bridge to language learning. However, the memory of English words has become an obstacle for students in villages and towns.
      Thirdly, poor English reading ability. The quantity of English words directly influences students' reading comprehension. In the reading part, students only get an average of 12 points from 30-point article reading comprehension, which reflects the poor reading ability of students in township junior middle schools.
      At last, poor English writing ability. The writing part is the most difficult part for students based on the score rate in table 4.3. Students only get an average score of 7.1, with the lowest score rate of only 24% in 30 points of writing. English writing relates to the students' vocabulary, syntax and pragmatic ability.
      Based on the analysis of High School Entrance English Examination in township junior middle schools in 2018, the development of rural English teaching faces challenges and difficulties, so as to the reform of English curriculum. The quality of English teaching is a significant indicator to measure the level of basic education. How to learn English well and how to improve the quality of English teaching in townships is becoming a widespread topic. In order to improve the quality rural English teaching and promote the balanced development of rural compulsory education in China, it's necessary to study the existing problems in rural English teaching and find out the solutions for rural compulsory English education.
      4.1.3Personal Information of Township Junior Middle Schools English Teachers
      A total of 68 English teachers are investigated in 9 township junior middle schools. 68 questionnaires are collected and data analysis depends on Microsoft Excel. Teachers' personal information is presented as follows.
      Table 4.4 Teachers' Personal Information
      Information Distribution percentage
      Gender male: 22%; female: 78%
      Age less than 30years old: 9%; 31-40 years old: 79% ; 41-50 years old: 10% ;
      more than 50 years old: 2%
      Teaching Years Less than 5 years: 7% 6-10 years: 31% more than 10 years: 62%
      Diploma/degree Associate degree: 12% College diploma: 88%
      Professional Titles third-grade: 9%; second-grade: 63%; first-grade: 28% ; senior-grade: 0
      Major English: 63% Non-English:37%
       
      In Table 4.4, a great difference appears in the percentage between male and female English teachers in Anlong township junior middle schools. There are 15 male English teachers accounting for 22% and 53 female English teachers account for 78%. The serious imbalance percentage between the male and female English teachers in township junior middle schools maybe one of the reasons that most boys are failed in English learning and less boys choose to major in English for further study. So the imbalance of English teachers between male and female is another problem that needs to be considered.
      According to the investigation of age and teaching age of English teachers in Anlong township junior middle schools, 54 English teachers are at the age from 31 to 45, accounting for 79%, only 6 young English teachers and 8 old English teachers, accounting for 9% and 12%. The age structure of English teachers is that middle-aged English teachers account for the majority, less young and old English teachers in Anlong township junior middle schools. 42 teachers, totally accounting for 62%, have more than ten years' teaching age. On one hand, they have plentiful teaching experiences and are familiar with teaching books and teaching contents than young teachers. On the other hand, 79% of the teachers are at the age of 31 to 45 teaching for more than ten years, thus another phenomenon appears that new teaching concepts and methods are difficult to be accepted and adopted by them for the limited academic knowledge background and unchangeable teaching procedures.
      The qualifications of teachers in junior high schools must have a diploma or above from a higher model college or other college. English teachers in Anlong township junior middle schools have different academic qualifications, including full-time courses, specialized courses and correspondence courses. Among the 68 English teachers, after teachers' self-academic improvement, 60 teachers accounting 88% have college diploma, 8 teachers accounting 12% have associate degree. According to the survey, English teachers' professional knowledge is basically full of the middle schools' English teaching requirements.
      Professional titles can be analyzed from these grades: no-grade, third-grade, second-grade, first-grade senior-grade and special-grade. As can be seen from table 4.4, six English teachers with third-grade title account for 9%; forty-three with second-grade title account for 63% and nineteen with first-grade title account for 18%. Based on the figures analyzed above, No one English teacher is at the senior-grade, what's more, the percentage of first-grade title is small among the 68 township English teachers. Although most of the English teachers have been teaching for more than ten years, their professional title still stays at the second-grade title, seldom of them can get the senior-grade title, it's impossible for an English teacher to get the senior teacher, obviously, the reform of teachers' professional titles needs to be reformed urgently in order to increase English teachers' teaching enthusiasm in townships.
      As is shown in Table 4.4, only 63% of township junior middle school English teachers are English major and about 25 of them accounting for 37% are non-English major. In rural middle schools, especially in remote towns, schools have to arrange non-English majors to take English classes owning to the lack of professional English teachers. About 37% of the English teachers are non-English majors who majors in such as geography, computer science, Chinese and so on, which shows that the professional level of English teachers in township junior middle schools is far from the level shown by their academic qualifications. For those unprofessional English teachers, with less professional knowledge about English and foreign language teaching, they are failed to grasp the core of language teaching though they are familiar with English vocabularies, sentence structures within curriculums. Teachers' less extracurricular reading owing to the limited professional knowledge can't provide students plentiful extracurricular knowledge comparing with professional and English teachers.
      Based on the investigation of English teachers in township junior middle schools in Anlong County, several problems exist in the team of English teachers, such as the shortage of professional English teachers, lower background of academic qualification and professional title and imbalance between male and female English teachers, thus a professional and high quality team of English teachers need to built in order to improve the quality of English teaching in township junior middle schools in Anlong County.
      4.1.4Analysis on English Teachers' Professional Knowledge
      Professional knowledge of junior middle school English teachers mainly includes language competence, teaching knowledge and teaching ability.
      Table 4.5 Survey of English Teachers' Language Competence
      Choice Very well Good Not bad Poor
      Listening 0 13(19%) 18(26%) 37(55%)
      Communication 0 3(4%) 13(19%) 52(77%)
      Reading 0 23(34%) 42(62%) 3(4%)
      Writing and translation 0 6(9%) 45(66%) 17(25%)
      Vocabulary 0 16(23%) 45(66%) 7(1%)
      Total percent 0 18% 48% 34%
       
      From Table 4.5, many teachers generally have a low level of basic professional skills in English listening, speaking, reading, writing and English vocabulary, among which none English teacher is able to reach a good level, 18 % are able to reach a less good level, 48 % are able to reach a general level, and 39 % are at a poor level. 87 % are at or below the general level of professional basic skills. Most of the teachers think that they are only better at reading and grammar than others, which is in line with the tradition of paying attention to reading and grammar teaching in English education in China for a long time. However, they are not good at listening, speaking, writing and vocabulary. Many teachers are poor at pronunciation and can't spell words correctly, and dare not speak English.
      More than 82 % of the English teachers' language competence is under a good standard. Teachers' English speaking ability is at a low level, it's difficult for them to teach English in English itself, thus Chinese are filled with an English class, and there is no language environment because students learn English through Chinese, what's worse, most English teachers are not bad at reading, vocabularies, writing and translations, they pay much attention to reading and translation in teaching procedure, ignoring students' communicating and listening, that's why students are afraid of speaking English for they are just input knowledge without output practice.
      Table 4.6 Teachers' Knowledge of Teaching Method, Principles, Culture and English Curriculum Standards
      Choice Very well Know some Know less Very poor
      Teaching methods of listening-speaking, communicating, taskbased and grammar-translated 5(7%) 17(25%) 39(58%) 7(10%)
      The principles of interest, communication, listening and speaking and situation in English teaching 8(12%) 38(56%) 15(22%) 7(10)
      Knowledge of related
      English culture 3(5%) 21(30%) 41(60%) 3(5%)
      English curriculum standards 0 25(37%) 33(48%) 10(15%)
       
      In Anlong township junior middle schools, English teachers lack of an unsystematic and unreasonable professional knowledge structure (Table 4.5 - 6). The survey also shows that township junior middle schools' English teachers have a single knowledge structure and narrow knowledge. In Table 5, no one knows much or more about English - related cultural knowledge, only 37% of the teachers who know about English - related cultural knowledge, while 48 % of them know little about English - related cultural knowledge and 15% of them doesn't know about it.
      Due to its own factors such as self-study ability, time and external factors such as part-time and on-the-job learning, the professional development level of English teachers in township junior middle schools is generally on the low side, the teachers' growth cycle is long, the professional knowledge and teaching theories of English teachers in township junior middle schools are not updated enough, many teachers do not understand the teaching theories and teaching methods often used in teaching, many teachers do not know the strategies of English learning, and even do not know what is communicative teaching method, direct method, grammar translation method, task-based teaching method, etc. This has resulted in the teachers' lack of theoretical guidance in teaching, their inability to reasonably use appropriate teaching methods to organize effective teaching, and their inability to effectively reflect and evaluate their own teaching.
      68% of the English teachers understand something about the principles of interest, communication, listening and speaking leading and situation in English teaching, 32% of them know less or nothing about those English teaching principles. It's difficult for them to organize English class teaching. When talking about English teaching methods, as an English teacher, it shouldn't be strange to these so-called grammar translation, direct communication, listening and speaking, communication and task-based teaching. However, 32% of the teachers realized something about it, more than 10% of them doesn't know that. Only 37% of the teachers know about the English Curriculum Standard. 15% of the teachers know little about it and 20% of them don't know about it.
      According to the English Curriculum Standard 2017 issued by the Ministry of Education, English teaching in township junior middle schools should focus on developing students' ability of comprehensive language use, improving students' cross-cultural awareness through English teaching, help students understand the differences between the world and Chinese and Western cultures, enhance their humanistic quality, stimulate students' interest in learning English and build up their confidence in learning English. It is very difficult to meet the requirements of English Curriculum Standard due to the single knowledge structure of English teachers in township junior middle schools.
      Table 4.7 Investigation on English Teachers' Class Teaching 1
      Choice Often Seldom Never
      Inquire about 10(15%) 34(50%) 24(35%)
      extracurricular materials
      Listening and Speaking 11(16%) 43(63%) 14(21%)
      Practice in Class
      Cultivating students' 14(21%) 38(56%) 16(23%)
      intercultural awareness
      Use of multimedia 19(28%) 38(56%) 11(16%)
      Class schedule Teacher- centered Moderate speaking and Student-centered
      49(72%) training 13(19%) 6(9%)
      Teaching arrangement Following the rearrangement the Increase or decrease
      books automatically books content appropriately
      41(60%) 14(21%) 13(19%)
      Teaching language English 16(24%) Chinese 52(76%)
       
      In the investigation of English teachers' class teaching, 76% of the English teachers teach English in Chinese and 86% of them seldom prepare lessons through inquiring extracurricular materials. Class still is teacher-centered for most teachers pay less attention to students' communicative ability such as listening and speaking and ignoring the cultivating of students' intercultural awareness. Also, teachers lack of teaching reflection and teaching research awareness. 60% of the teachers still at the stage of teaching books instead of teaching through books, in fact, some topics in books are not close to rural students' daily lives, teachers need to do some rearrangement and adjustment in the books instead of following the books automatically.
      19 teachers, account for 28% make full use of the multimedia in teaching, more than 72% of the English teachers seldom or never use it. That's really a waste of the investment of teaching resources. while interviewing some teachers, it's known that most teachers lack of computer knowledge and skills, so it's much difficult for them to use computer, the modern multimedia teaching equipment is getting more tough for them so that they have to give up to make use of it without others' guiding. So only invest modern teaching equipment is not enough to improve the teaching quality in rural areas if no systematic training classes are hold for rural teachers.
      According to the investigation of the 68 English teachers in township junior middle schools, none school book English teaching magazines for teachers and students. Only six teachers have awareness of booking some English teaching magazines to expand their own knowledge. Life-long learning is highly required in the teaching profession. The teachers are supposed to become academic leaders, especially in rural areas, the source of students' knowledge mostly relies on teachers, so it's necessary for teachers to update their own knowledge and develop a habit of life-long learning.
      4.1.5Analysis on Students' English Learning
      Students' English learning analysis focus on parents' opinions on English, students' English abilities and students' attitude towards English.
      4.1.5.1Parents' Opinions on English in Rural Areas
      Parents' opinions on English directly affect their attitude towards their children' English learning and decide their investment on children' English learning.
      Table 4.8Parents' Opinion on English in Rural Areas 1
      Choice important Less important
      Importance of learning English 75(75%) 25(25%)
      Comparing English with other 78(78%) 22(22%)
      traditional subjects
       
      In the countryside, 75% of the parents agree that English is as important as another traditional subject, 25% of them think English is less important. 78% of the rural parents think English is as important as other traditional subjects, but 22% of the parents think that English is less important than other subjects.
      Table 4.9 Parents' Opinion on English in Rural Areas 2
      Choice Never Seldom Often
      Tutoring children to learn English at home. 9(8%) 38(38%) 53(53%)
      Applying for English tutorial classes 27(27%) 46(46%) 27(27%)
       
      53% of the parents often tutor children to study English at home and 27% of the rural parents apply for English tutorial classes for their children. People have no chance to use and touch English in their daily lives, so parents do not realize the importance of English in rural areas. Although, cellphones, TVs and even Wi-Fi almost go to every rural family, with less education background, parents do not realize how to guide their children to make full use of modern technology to help their study. Just as a parent who comes from countryside said:
      we lack of knowledge to check or teach children' homework, what we can do is just to ask them to complete homework on time on weekends, most of the time, students are living in schools, we have little time to chat with children, so how children get on in their study all relies on schools and teachers.
      Students' study seems all depends on schools and teachers in rural areas, so as for those board township junior middle schools; teachers play a decisive role in students' academic performance without parents' supervision and cooperation in rural areas.
      4.1.5.2Students' English Abilities
      English abilities include listening, speaking, reading, writing and translating. In the survey of the students' English learning abilities, 2700 students are asked to make a self-assessment.
      Table 4.11 Students' English Abilities
      Choice Better Not bad poor
      Listening (945)35% (1161)43% (594)22%
      Speaking (648)24% (1242)46% (810)30%
      Reading (1053)39% (1269)47% (378)14%
      Writing (567)21% (1566)58% (567)21%
       
      According to the students' self-evaluation of their English abilities, more than half of the students are under a not bad situation in four parts of English competence, students in rural areas have poor English learning ability which shows that their English foundation is very poor and they cannot keep up with the teachers in the English teaching process. What reasons result in such an unacceptable condition needs to be considered.
      4.1.5.3English Activities held in Schools or Classes
      English, as a foreign language, to be taught and learned in China inland, there is less chance to be used in daily lives, especially in rural areas. The only chance that students can speak and feel the language of English is in English classes and schools, so teachers and schools play an important role to crate a language environment for English learning.
      Table 4.12 English Activities in Schools or Classes
      Choice Never Seldom
      1~2times/year Often
      1~2times/month
      Qianxiang Middle school (2367)88% (324)12% 0
      Xinglong Middle school (1890)70% (540)20% (270)10%
      Puping Middle school (2295)85% (297)11% (108)4%
      Sayu Middle school (2511)93% (189)7% 0
      Dushan Middle school (1080)40% (972)36% (648)24%
      Getang Middle school (2403)89% (216)8% (81)3%
      Longshan Middle school (2349)87% (216)8% (135)5%
      Haizi Middle school (2484)92% (216)8% 0
      Wanfenghu Middle school (2511)93% (189)7% 0
      Total (1944)72% (324)12% (135)5%
       
      Township junior middle schools pay less attention to English than other subjects. From table 4.11, schools or English teachers seldom even never hold English activities. 72% of the students have no chance to join the enjoyable English activities; students have no chance to use English without the atmosphere of English learning in schools. For school, English is only a course, a kind of knowledge that students need to master, a teaching task that must be completed, but they do not realize that English is actually a language and a tool for our communication.
      4.1.5.4Students' attitude towards English
      A saying goes that interest is the best teacher. Students' attitude towards English has a big effect on their English learning.
       
      Chart 4.1 Students' Attitude Towards English 1
       
       
      Through the Investigation of students' attitude towards English learning in township junior middle schools in Anlong county, students do not like learning English. 65 % of the students in the seventh grade are still interested in English, but in the eighth grade, only 34 % of the students like learning English and only 29 % in the ninth grade. From the seventh grade to the ninth grade, the students' learning attitude towards English shows a downward trend, while the students who do not like learning English increase from 12 % in the seventh grade to 40 % in the ninth grade. This is also one of the reasons why the average score of the senior high school entrance examination is not high. Just as a saying goes that interest is the best teacher. Without interest in English, how can students learn English well? Then it should be taken into account that what causes rural students lose interest in English and how to arise their interest in English learning.
      Chart 4.2 Students' attitude towards English 2
       
       
      Chart 4.2 shows that 47% of the students think English is useful, 29% of them think English is useless. More than 73% of students feel English is less use or useless in their lives. Students have no chance to touch and use English except examination. Some students may get high marks in the examination and help them to get into higher schools for further study, but for those who are failed in English exam, the results of English exam become an obstacle for their further study because English is one of the main subjects in the Entrance Exam for high schools or universities, for them, English is useless, even hope there is no English curriculum in schools.
      Chart 4.13 Students' attitude towards English 3
      Choice Percentage
      English homework Thinking Asking teachers or Not handing in
      independently classmate for help homework
      (756)28% (1215)45% (729)27%
      Make full use of their spare Often Seldom Never
      time to learning English (864)32% (1215)45% (891)33%
      Extracurricular practice about Often Never Lack of resources
      reading and listening (999)37% (1377)51% (324)12%
       
      Students lack of motivation in English learning after class. Only 28% of the students do their English homework independently and 45%, instead, 27% of them do not care about the English homework. Also, 78% of the students seldom or never make full use of their spare time to learning English and 63% of them never have extracurricular practice about reading and listening. More than 70% of the rural students completely depend on teachers and 40 minutes in their English learning, they don't have the awareness of self-study. So another phenomena existing in township junior middle schools is that most of the students lack of motivation in English learning, but what causes this need to be further discussed.
      Chart 4.3 Students' attitude towards English class
       
       
      According to chart 4.5-7, students' interest towards English and English class showing a down trend and get more and more boring from Grade 7 to Grade 9. It is well known that interest is the best teacher, without interesting, even feeling boring toward English. It is much difficult for rural students to learn English well. During the interviews with English teachers and classroom observation of several English teaching classes, teachers mainly focus on translating the text, analyzing the key words and phrases, grammar knowledge points and sentence structure in the class, then ask students to do relevant exercise book so as to consolidate the students' mastery of these knowledge point. However, unchangeable teaching method does not attract students' language learning interest, so the classroom atmosphere gradually becomes boring and cannot arouse students' interest in English learning, thus affecting the overall improvement of English level in township middle school in Anlong County.
      From the above results of investigation and analysis, the English teaching in the township junior middle schools in Anlong County is perfect. Many problems exist in the aspects of teaching materials, teachers, parents, and schools. The English teaching level of the whole township area is still far behind urban areas though modern advanced teaching equipment comes into township junior middle schools. Therefore, it is necessary to find out the reasons and put forward corresponding countermeasures to promote the development of English teaching in the township area.
      4.2Interview Results and Discussion on Influential Factors
      Many factors affect the development of English teaching in township junior middle schools. Schools, teachers and students are all mainly involved. This part discusses the teaching problems in English teaching, factors that affect the development of English teaching and put out some suggestions for English teaching in township junior middle schools based on the investigation and interview results.
      4.2.1Teaching Problems Existing in Township Middle Schools
      According to the investigation, three problems exist in rural English teaching. They are the shortage of professional English teachers, teaching contents without considering the rural situation and unscientific teaching evaluation.
      4.2.1.1The Shortage of Professional English Teachers
      The development of rural education is the key to realize the balanced development of compulsory education. Yake (1993) declared that the most basic requirement for the balanced development of compulsory education is to allocate educational resources fairly among educational institutions and groups so as to achieve a relatively balanced educational supply and demand. Among the educational resources, teachers are the most important resources. Experience at home and abroad has repeatedly proved that the development of education and the improvement of its quality are inseparable from a stable, well-trained, highly motivated and reliable team of teachers.
      My major is geography, but I have taught English for more than 8 years because of the shortage of English teachers. At the beginning, I faced with many problems and difficulties in words pronunciations and the understanding of sentence structures, especially many English words are difficult for me to pronounce clearly without professional knowledge phonetics and pronunciations. So sometimes I feel embarrassed when students come to ask how to pronounce the word, all I can say is looking up the dictionary.
      An English teacher from Qianxiang Middle School
      In recent years, all township junior middle schools have been actively introducing English teachers. However, due to the influence of the overall number of teachers in schools and other factors, most township junior middle schools are not equipped with reasonable teachers, especially English teachers. According to the investigation of English Teachers' Academic Qualifications in Anlong township junior middle schools, 25 % of English teachers are non-English major graduates. Most of them are teachers of other courses concurrently holding English courses, or because of the shortage of teachers in English courses, they have been adjusted from other courses to engage in English teaching. All these fully illustrate the serious shortage of professional English teachers in township junior middle schools.
      English teachers in Anlong township middle schools have different academic qualifications, including full-time courses, specialized courses and correspondence courses. Among the 68 English teachers, after teachers' self -academic improvement, 60 teachers with undergraduate education, 8 teachers with specialist education accounted. The initial academic qualifications of English teachers in township junior middle schools are not high. Although many teachers have improved their academic qualifications after studying, their knowledge reserves and abilities have not been improved a lot. Many teachers generally have a low level of basic professional skills in English listening, speaking, reading, writing and English vocabulary, among which none English teacher is able to reach a good level, 18 % are able to reach a less good level, 48 % are able to reach a general level, and 39 % are at a poor level. 87 % are at or below the general level of professional basic skills. The teaching level of most English teachers still needs to be improved. More than 82 % of the English teachers' language competence is under a good standard. Teachers' English speaking ability is at a low level, it's difficult for them to teach English in English itself, thus Chinese are filled with an English class, and there is no language environment because students learn English through Chinese.
      Due to its own factors such as self-study ability, time and external factors such as part-time and on-the-job learning, the professional development level of English teachers in township middle schools is generally on the low side, the teachers' growth cycle is long, the professional knowledge and teaching theories of English teachers in township middle schools are not updated enough, many teachers do not understand the teaching theories and teaching methods often used in teaching. It is very difficult to meet the requirements of Primary School English Curriculum Standard due to the single knowledge structure of English teachers in township middle schools. So the shortage of English teacher is not only on quantity but also quality, especially lack of teachers with professional knowledge.
      4.2.1.2Teaching Contents without Considering the Rural Situation
      Most of the current state published English textbooks, its characteristics are increasing vocabularies, difficulties and more high-tech content. More textbooks are not compiled according to the actual situation of the rural students.
      Renai Book has been used for English teaching more than ten years. The main contents of Renai book appear in the form are dialogues. This book focus on cultivating students' abilities of listening and speaking, at the same time, the book demands higher requirements for rural English teachers' listening and speaking abilities which are just their shortages. What's more, some topics in the book are far away rural students' life experience. For example, in Unit3 topic 3What would you like to drink? in Grade 7, many words such as Sandwich, hamburger, salad and so on, for rural students are new things. They have never seen and eaten such food, so it's both difficult for students to learn and master the vocabularies and English teachers to start the teaching. However, they are not good at listening, speaking, writing and vocabulary. Many teachers are poor at pronunciation and can't spell words correctly, and dare not speak English. Many rural English teachers do not know the strategies of English learning, and even do not know what is communicative teaching method, direct method, grammar translation method, task-based teaching method, etc.
      Listening is not included in the English examination for the county's unified examination, and about the communicative competence test only accounts for less core, so teachers usually give priority to grammar-translation in their teaching. Teachers explain grammar knowledge in the dialogue, especially in the grade 8, grammar knowledge is numerous and complicated, during the county's unified exam, grammar knowledge accounts for as much as 27% of the whole paper. The book focuses on listening and speaking, many teachers, according to the interview, think it is especially difficult for them to explain the grammar points, so as to students, they are hard to grasp and understand it. Just as a teacher said it's so strange to use a book based on listening and speaking to do teaching where Listening and speaking is not considered in the county's unified English examination.
      4.2.1.3Unscientific Teaching Evaluation
      1.Single and unreasonable teaching evaluation
      At present, the existing major issues still need to be solved in township junior middle schools' English teaching, such as exam-oriented teaching, stereotyped teaching model and so on. Students' grades are basically the only evaluating measure for a school, a teacher and a student. There are at least four tests for students in each semester in Qianxiang Junior Middle school, for the students of Grade nine, every week comes a test in the second semester. It seems that all study aims to the examination. The scores of students have a directly effect on the evaluation of advanced teacher, as for a teacher, if he or she wants to get a higher teacher's professional titles, the honor of Advanced Teacher is one of the necessary requirements and the most necessary requirement for the Advanced Teacher is the scores of tests in Anlong county.
      Evaluation system directly affects the goal orientation and the use of book. The pursuit of scores and graduation rates lead to a bad condition that the examination contents decide what to teach and what to learn. Students can't fell the pleasure in English learning under the examination-oriented education and an unreasonable teaching evaluation also has a bad effect on students' comprehensive development (Liu 2017). When students are asked how does she or he like English, some students said:
      I like English at the beginning but I can't get even a passing mark and always failed in English examination, I lose the interest in English gradually.
      (Student A from Class 2, Grade 7)
      In fact, students perform differently in different parts during the teaching process, for example, some students do well in grammar, some students are good at pronunciation and others like reading, but the evaluation system only pays attention to the test scores, so do the teachers. So students can't get a sense of achievement where they are good at during English learning, then lose their interests gradually. Teachers have to ask students to do more exercise book to improve the teaching records even through this is vicious cycle of further misunderstanding between teachers and students, no one can break it except students.
      2 Randomness of evaluation standard
      The basic abilities of English learning are listening, speaking, reading and writing for students. But the listening test isn't included in the examination from Grade 7 to Grade 9, listening test begins to appear in the English Test for Senior School Entrance in 2018, so many township middle school English teachers don't emphasize the listening practice until Grade 9. It isn't scientific to evaluate a student only relying on a piece of paper, so as a school to a teacher's teaching ability. Though school has its teaching evaluation system which depending on the scores and teaching observation. Class watching and assessment is a way of teaching evaluation, but it lacks of an established standard and professional guidance, usually a teacher's random records according to notebook records. Once all English teachers came to an English public course in Qianxiang Junior Middle School, a teacher's comment on this class:
      Generally speaking, this English class is good, teacher speaks English clearly but students seem to fail to understand. For rural middle school students, their English knowledge is poor, teacher should pay more attention to leading students into the course, class is not active and the interaction between students and teacher is not enough.
      Most of the time, teachers go to listen to a class just for completing the school's arrangement, they do not consciously go for watching a class for learning from each other. Teachers' comment always based on their own teaching style or teaching standard which is not scientific and professional. What's worse, after watching a class, there isn't a specific discussion and communication, the speaker is always the grouper or the teaching organizer and the feedback is also not systematic.
      Teaching evaluation also involves skills, a teacher should know about relate theories and methods and mater certain skills before making use of it. But teachers know little about education evaluation system and lack of the training of education evaluating skills according to their education background in rural areas. Their evaluation ability needs to be improved.
      The present education evaluation standard unilaterally emphasize on the book and students' understanding, memory and utilization of books, hindering and dismembering the development of students, and making teachers and students to be the slaves of evaluation (Lu 2015). All kinds of test scores and the rates of school graduate students entered a higher school have been a main evaluating items for students, teachers and schools which lead the education moving around the test scores.
      4.2.2Factors Affecting the Development of English Teaching in Township Junior Middle Schools
      There are many factors that affect the improvement of English teaching in town ship junior middle schools, this part will mainly discuss the factors from three aspects: the outdated concept of English education, less investment in rural education and students lacking of English learning motivation in township junior middle schools.
      4.2.2.1The Outdated Concept of English Education
      The outdated concept of English education involves less use of modern technology in English teaching, outdated ideas from parents, teachers and schools.
      1.Less use of modern technology in English teaching
      Modern technology, such as smartphones, computers and many English study Apps, play an important role in modern English teaching and the ways of students' English learning. The combination of teaching and modern information technology has become an irresistible trend in modern education since the widely use of modern technology. It provides more accesses for students to get new information and opportunities to interacting with the outside world in rural areas. Moreover, modern technology completely changes the traditional single teaching model of teacher-centered class. This is a classroom that cannot be achieved without technology (Boles, 2011).
      Significant changes have been made in rural school teaching environments since the multimedia equipment comes to rural schools. Now every school has installed Class Access to ICTs multimedia teaching equipment in all rural schools in Anlong County under the help of government since 2016. But the investigation of the frequency of multimedia usage in English class teaching in 9 township junior middle schools, only 19 teachers, account for 28% make full use of the multimedia in teaching, more than 72% of the English teachers seldom or never use it. That's really a waste of the investment of teaching resources. Most English teachers still rely on the traditional teaching mode that is a piece of chalk, a blackboard and a book. Teachers' awareness of English teaching need to be changed and their capability of multimedia teaching usage need to be improved in time.
      It is still a controversial topic whether students can use cellphones in schools. Now, every rural student can easily get a smart phone, the use of cellphones and other learning machines brings so many disadvantages both for students and the school management; however, its advantages do exist for students' study, especially for their English learning since many study Apps about English appears, that's shouldn't be ignored.
      More and more urban schools allow students to use cellphone in schools, so as some schools in Guiyang. School purchases some online resources and every student get a learning account number on Yike App. Students are required to submit homework on the Internet through his account number every day. English subjects have a variety of homework and make full use of network resources. Students do oral imitation training through those original sounds of movies and TV plays and some other authentic talk shows; what's more, a large amount of reading resources expand students' reading quantity and improve their writing ability.
      (Xi, 2018)
      Students are all living on campus from Sunday afternoon to Friday afternoon on every week, they are forbidden to use cellphones during the school days. More solutions about how to guide students make full use of cellphone to study rationally should be taken into account instead of how to forbidden students use cellphones in rural schools, especially in township junior middle schools. Proper use of smartphones for learning plays a supporting role in English learning.
      2.The Outdated Ideas of Parents
      Most parents who come from rural areas don't have enough time to care about their children' study because of living condition and education background comparing to those parents who live in cities. Once they send their children to school, no matter what their children do at school, it's all schools and teachers' duty.
      Lacking of education is the main cause of poverty. Chairman Xi, in the report of the 19th National Congress, pointed out that from now to the year of 2020, it is a decisive period for building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. We must mobilize the whole party and the whole society, persist in precision poverty alleviation, precision poverty alleviation, and resolutely win the fight against poverty.
      Now Anlong County is at the stage of poverty eradication, and education is an important indicator of poverty eradication, therefore the Education Bureau requires school teachers to visit and persuade the drop-out students to return at least 3 times. But the effect is not obvious. Once upon a time, I went to visit and persuade several dropouts. When talking with the parents, they also felt they could do nothing about their children. Most rural parents think “To send him to school is to do our duty. It's up to him to learn”. Parents deduce the demands for their children; even don't pay attention to their children's school study. Most of the time, they follow their children's heart. It is difficult to complete education poverty alleviation and improve the quality of rural education if it just relies on schools and teachers.
      In most rural areas, there is another real problem- left-behind child. These migrant workers leave their children in the care of their elders or foster care in relatives' homes, and they are separated from their legal guardians, resulting in the phenomenon of “single parent education”, “inter-generational education” and “foster education”. Children who stay at home lack the love and education of their parents and are prone to problems in discipline.
      The report of the 18th National Congress pointed out that the issue of education equity should be vigorously promoted, educational resources should be allocated in a rational way, and the focus should be on rural, marginal, poor and ethnic minority areas, support special education, and raise the level of financial support for students from families with financial difficulties. Actively promote equal access to education for children of migrant workers.
      People have no chance to use and touch English in their daily lives, so some parents do not realize the importance of English in rural areas. About 22% of the parents don't think it is necessary according to the investigation, many parents think that their children do not go abroad; there is no need to learn English. In addition, many parents in the countryside only graduated from primary school, they had not learned English and know little about English. Some of them do not treat English as important as Chinese and math and even consider English as a study burden; parents' opinion virtually dampens children's enthusiasm on English learning.
      “Poverty alleviation must help wisdom, so that children in poor areas receive a good education, is an important task of poverty alleviation and development, and is also an important way to block the inter-generational transmission of poverty (Sun 2018)”. Poverty is treated first, and poor areas and poor families have hope for development as long as they are armed with knowledge.
      3.The Outdated Ideas of Schools
      Limitations of geographical location leads to the exchange opportunities between township junior middle schools and the outside world are less than those of urban schools, and the birth of many new ideas, new viewpoints and new concepts will be slower than that of urban schools. Therefore, the educational concepts of township junior middle schools will lag behind.
      Township junior middle schools pay less attention to English than other subjects. Based on the survey, schools or English teachers seldom even never hold English activities, 72% of the students have no chance to join the enjoyable English activities, school lacks of the atmosphere of English learning and schools do not have the awareness of creating a relaxing atmosphere of English learning, and there is also less encouraging and guiding publicity about English learning. Compared with urban schools, there is a lack of foreign teachers, foreign language books, foreign language resources, etc. Compared with other sports activities held by the school, the school has held few or no sports competitions related to English, such as English drama festival, English speech contest and English culture festival, which makes students form a fixed train of thought that English is a minor content and does not need to invest too much. For school, English is only a course, a kind of knowledge that students need to master, a teaching task that must be completed, but they do not realize that English is actually a language and a tool for our communication. Students learn English words in repeated reading and silent writing. Some students may get high marks in the examination, but they are afraid when they are required to talk in English. This method seriously affects students' English application ability. Students have no chance to touch and use English except examination.
      4.The Outdated Ideas of Teachers
      In the survey of English teachers' language competence and teaching knowledge, more than 87 % of the English teachers are at or below the general level of professional basic skills and while 63 % of them know little or doesn't know about English - related cultural knowledge, 46% of the English teachers know less even do not know what is communicative teaching method, direct method, grammar translation method, task-based teaching method, etc. This has resulted in the teachers' lack of theoretical guidance in teaching, their inability to reasonably use appropriate teaching methods to organize effective teaching,.
      English teaching in township junior middle schools still follow “grammar translation teaching method”. In the classroom, teachers take the teaching mode of “explaining, translating, reading and writing”. The teaching design of an English lesson is almost the procedure of reading words - reading the text - translating the text and analyzing grammar knowledge in the text one by one. The key point of a class is grammar analysis. Some teachers just analyze a grammar point in the whole class, and some teachers even analyze the related grammar when reading the topic requirements. After grammar analyzing, students are required to practice frequently until most students seem to understand this grammar. Grammar is regarded as the core of teaching and teaching focuses on explaining vocabulary, grammar and analyzing language points in the text.
      The author have watched other English teachers' public class in Qianxiang Junior Middle School for several times, they have the same teaching mode and method, reading words- reading texts-analyzing grammar and doing exercises. They do not teach English as a language but as grammar. In class, students follow the teacher to read the words and read the text, then listen to the teacher analyze grammar, do exercises, sometimes, translate the text sentence by sentence. There is no chance to really use English. In addition, teachers use Chinese to teach English, and the communications between teachers and students are also Chinese. This kind of teaching method can make students remember a lot of grammar, but it is difficult to arouse students' interest in English.
      Through every school has installed Class Access to ICTs multimedia teaching equipment in all classes since 2016, only 19 teachers, account for 28% make full use of the multimedia in teaching, more than 72% of the English teachers seldom or never use it. Few teachers can use it in class teaching for the shortage of multimedia usage technology. English teaching in junior high school is at the stage of enlightenment and inspiration, which brings great challenges to junior high school English teachers. Many teachers still take traditional backward teaching methods in their teaching. In the teaching process, the requirement for knowledge points is too high, mainly in order to improve English test results. The teaching task of English teachers in junior high school is relatively heavy, and there is less time for self - improvement. In addition, the opportunities for teachers in villages and towns to further study and train are also very limited. Therefore, they lack the opportunity to exchange teaching experience with other excellent teachers, just relying on their previous teaching experience.
      4.2.2.2Less Investment in Rural English Education
      Less investment in rural English education is mainly reflected in government, social and family, that is less education investment from governments, less social support and less investment from family.
      1.Less Education Investment from Governments
      Anlong County locates in the southwest of Guizhou, is a famous "historical and cultural city" in Guizhou province. It is well-known for its cultural and natural wonders of “3000 years of culture, 300 years of lotus flowers and 30 scenic spots” and its urban characteristics of “city of lotus fragrance and ancient capital of Nanming”, so Anlong anti-poverty campaign focuses on historical and cultural tourism. In order to make tourism and cultural industries bigger and stronger and cultivate new economic growth points, Anlong is built into “city of lotus fragrance and ancient capital of Nanming”.
      In order to make full use of Anlong local cultural resources, inherit excellent traditional culture, Anlong County Education Bureau and the office of Anlong County History compiled local textbooks such as Anlong Culture, Highland Lotus City&Charming Anlong and so on. These books are also included in the examination scope. What's more, government and schools hold different kinds of programs, such as Chinese poetry recitation, singing and dancing activities and so on, to spread and inherit Anlong's excellent traditional culture. These are good ways to spread local culture and help students have a better understand about Anlong; also create a historical culture environment, but no one about English, even an activity.
      Anlong's rich local cultural resources can also provide a language environment and language materials for English learning if make full use of it. But there is no one policy about incorporate local culture resources into local English teaching materials, no one activity about English.
      Every year, the whole county will hold an open class competition for teaching. The competition subjects include Chinese, mathematics, history physics, and so on, but there are few open class competitions about English. From 2014 to 2018, there was only one open class competition including English within five years.
      The open class competition is not just a competition, but also an opportunity for teachers to improve teaching skills and broaden their horizons. However, the education administrative departments do not consider the development of English teaching and rarely held open English class competitions and relative activities, which dampened the enthusiasm of local English teachers for innovation and reform in English teaching.
      2.Less Social Support
      First of all, the phenomenon of left-behind children in rural areas is very common at present. The parents of these left-behind children work outside the country all the year round, and the children are all led by the elderly at home. Because there are often some problems in communication and ideas between their ancestors and grandchildren, many left-behind children have personality problems, such as don't love contacting with the outside world, not liking to communicate with others, and liking to close their inner world. Problems such as shyness, timidity, dare not look at teachers, dare not speak, dare not practice bravely, and obstacles to speech expression in public have emerged in English class, thus greatly affecting the efficiency of English learning practice. Secondly, the government's investment in English teaching in rural primary schools is seriously insufficient. The local government's investment in education in rural schools is obviously insufficient; resulting in the schools being unable to improve the relevant teaching facilities due to lack of funds, and no excellent English teachers can be invited to teach.
      Aim to build a rural teacher team with ideals and beliefs, moral sentiments, solid knowledge, benevolence, quality and contribution, 300 rural excellent teachers are selected every year and totally 15000 will be selected in whole province to establish village teacher's studio from 2015 to 2020. Taking each village teacher's studio as a unit, a certain number of qualified teachers are selected as members and students of the studio from the township schools in this area. Through carrying out a series of teaching and researching activities, such as demonstration classes, open classes, research and grinding classes, heterogeneous classes, observing to evaluation classes, special lectures, and reading and communication activities, to build up a cadre of rural teachers to promote and demonstrate the professional growth of local teachers. Two village teacher studios have been established from 2016 to 2018, one is a Chinese teacher and the other one is a math teacher. The author once got a chance to join their teaching activities, their courses focus on Chinese, math, history, policy, and so on, but no English lessons are included.
      The host of village teacher studio can be regarded as the field leader in this area, different kinds of teaching activities can be organized to promote the communication among teachers in different township schools. However, English seems to be ignored and none English teacher can able to get such an honor because of the obstacle of professional knowledge and the difficulties in professional title evaluation in rural areas. No activities are specially held for English and rural English teachers from schools to local areas, it's difficult for an English teacher to get a chance to learn from others and self-reflect on teaching.
      Teachers deeply felt that the establishment of the village teacher studio has built a bridge for the village teachers to learn and communicate. The studios' continuous technical support will definitely promote the development of local township education (Dou 2018). Since the establishment of Guizhou Province village teacher studios started their activities, they have promoted the professional growth of local village teachers, and have significantly changed and improved their professional attitude, professional theoretical knowledge, and teaching skills, etc. in other word, rural English teaching also need those social supports to built a bridge for the village teachers to learn and communicate.
      3.Less Education Investment from Family
      The development of rural economy is relatively lagging behind. It is difficult for a family to make a living if just depend on the land. Many rural students' families have to face that parents go out for work to make a living and have little chance to live together. Some of them live together with their grandparents, while others are that only one parent stay at home to take care of their children. Most of the students' parents have a low level of education and cannot give their children English or even all their knowledge counseling. Most parents can't analyze and sum up with their children after each examination for their own low education background. Therefore, generally speaking, some rural school students lack of better family education.
      The Popularization of nine-year compulsory education has reduced many rural families' education economic burden, especially for the “three exemptions and two subsidies” in rural areas, parents just prepare part of children' living expenses. But for these low-income families, they do not have spare money to spend on education. Urban children have many tools or materials for English learning, such as repetition machine, Walkman, player, computer and so on, but for many rural children, they have no chance to touch these study tools.
      Rural families seldom spend money on purchasing aids for their children in the process of learning English, some of them may buy some cheaper review materials in the market, but the investment is much less than that of children in the city. In fact, learning English still requires some aids. For example, if there is a learning machine or a repetition machine, students have more chance to listen to English and practice or a repetition machine; students have more chance to listen to English and practice English; this will improve students' English application ability
      4.2.2.3Students Lack of English Learning Motivation
      Students lack of English learning motivation mainly for their poor English rudiments and family influence. In rural areas, families, schools and society lack of English learning environment and pragmatic environment, students don't understand why need to study English.
      1.Poor English Rudiments
      At present, there is a serious shortage of professional English teachers in Anlong township junior middle schools; therefore, other teachers are often employed to serve as part-time English teachers. There are many shortages in professional knowledge and teaching levels, and even problems such as wrong English pronunciation and grammatical errors may occur. So it's difficult to meet the needs of the development of English teaching.
      In terms of social environment, the public pay less attention to the English learning of township junior middle schools' students than senior high schools' students, especially junior high school students in rural areas. Through interviews with English teachers, it was found that in the senior high school entrance examination, the Grade 9 students in rural areas could get a 100 - point difference from the urban schools in the same county. However, less people care about this phenomenon, and more people are concerned about those who get high scores. Secondly, the country's promotion of new curriculum reform and revision of teaching materials are more likely to be more suitable for urban secondary schools. Because both teaching materials and examination-oriented materials are more based on the needs of universal education, or education that meets the requirements, and for school education in townships and rural areas, especially in relatively remote areas, it is obviously difficult to meet its requirements due to congenital deficiency and acquired conditions. Among them, there is much profound knowledge, which is not well known to the rural students. The things they can perceive and contact and their survival experience are basically unable to meet the needs of the existing teaching materials and examination occasions.
      2.Families Influence in Rural Areas
      As far as the family environment is concerned, it mainly involves the cultural foundation of parents and the importance parents attach to students' learning English. Apart from schools, family education is the most frequent and profound type of education that affects students. The family situation of rural junior high school students is that their parents work outside the country and have little chance to live with their parents. They all live with their grandparents and some only have one parent to stay at home to take care of their children. These children have lived in the countryside for generations, have never seen foreigners, have never talked with others in English, and even many people can't speak Putonghua well. Many villagers have never seen English at all and they think it doesn't matter whether they learn English or not since they don't go abroad anyway. When students return home and do their homework, they mostly ask their parents for help. Rural parents generally have a low level of education, usually a junior high school or a senior high school. Some parents can also provide tutoring in subjects such as Chinese and mathematics, but English is completely out of their ability. Parents themselves do not even know English letters, and they cannot spend money on tutoring like city children. Therefore, students' enthusiasm for learning English in such a family environment will naturally decrease and their English level will naturally fall behind that of the children in the city. From the perspective of parents' own cultural level, most of the students' parents have low cultural level and cannot give their children English or even all knowledge counseling. However, there are also some parents who can't give their children English tutoring, but will actively supervise their children to finish their English homework. Even most parents never analyze and sum up experiences with their students after each examination. Therefore, on the whole, rural junior high school students cannot accept better family English education in English learning. Over time, students have formed a dispensable attitude towards English learning.
      In rural areas, families, schools and society lack of English learning environment and pragmatic environment, students don't understand why need to study English. The gap in English teaching in primary schools and the influence of the traditional learning atmosphere have not created a strong atmosphere for English learning. Due to the influence of many conditions, the quality of English teaching in rural primary schools is not guaranteed. Most students have lost interest in English at the primary school stage, and quite a number of students even gave up English completely at the primary school. Moreover, due to the lack of information, rural students cannot realize the importance of English (Jiang 2107).
      In the second half of the twentieth century, Gardner and Lambert carried out famous research that students who feel most warmly about a language and who want to integrate into the culture of its speakers are more highly motivated (and learn more successfully) than those who are only learning language as a means to an end (e.g. getting a good job). But whatever kind of motivation students have, it is clear that highly motivated students do better than ones without any motivation at all. It is clear that motivation and interest are very important to students' learning.
      4.2.3Suggestions for English Teaching in Township Junior Middle Schools
      Based on the discussions about the problems and its reasons in English teaching in township junior middle schools, suggestions are given as follows: emphasis on English education in townships, pay attention to English teaching and strengthen the construction of English teachers in township junior middle schools.
      4.2.3.1 Emphasis on English Education in Townships
      Compulsory education curriculum reform has been started in our country since 2001, and has gained a lot after many years of exploration and practice. Since the reform of English curriculum for compulsory education in China, there have been some discussions on the role and proportion of English in our educational activities. However, “English, as an important subject, has important social value both for the development of the country and especially for the implementation of the “the belt and road initiative” development strategy in China.”(Men 2018)
      First of all, China is playing an increasingly important role in international affairs, English, as the most widely used language in the world, is still and will remain an important communication tool for quite a long time, and is one of the most important tools for spreading Chinese culture. Language is the carrier of culture. It is the key to cultivate students' ability in language learning and to find the combination between English and Chinese culture. Though English is a kind of western cultures, we should treat it dialectically. From another perspective, English is also an important tool for international scientific and technological exchanges. Learning advanced western scientific and technological achievements is an important driving force for China's development. Secondly, English education is valuable for students' development. In today's world where globalization is deepening and the Internet is developing, mastering English is of great practical significance to students' personal growth and development. English learning is conducive to students' better understanding of the world and enhancing students' ideological inclusiveness. What's more, English learning helps students learn how to live with people from different cultures. While learning advanced science and culture in English, students are constantly communicating and understanding with other cultures. Mastering English also means that students have more opportunities to receive quality education in their lives, serve their own country better, and mastering English contribute to the formation of good humanistic quality in cross-cultural exchanges (Men 2018).
      The process of reform and development of the new curriculum standards reflects the process of understanding and development of the value of English education in China. It is clear that English education has great significance not only at the national level but also at the individual level in the future development of globalization. English learning is not only a channel to understand world culture, but also an important tool for students to raise their awareness of local culture. In the process of continuous language comparison and language practice, students' recognition and pride in Chinese culture also increase, which helps to enhance students' cultural self - confidence.
      The New English Curriculum Standard (2017) points out that language has rich cultural connotations. The understanding of English- speaking countries' culture is beneficial to English understanding and using; at the same time the understanding of the culture of English-speaking countries is conducive to understand their own culture deeply and is helpful to cultivate world awareness.
      Firstly, the rural education administrative departments and schools should abandon the old idea of examination-oriented education and realize the reasonableness and the importance of English. In the new age, English has its own significance as well as our traditional subjects.
      Secondly, the education departments and schools provide more chance to rural English teachers. For example, on the annual Open Class Competition, English should be taken into account as well as Chinese, math and other traditional subjects. The Open Class Competition is not just a competition, but also an opportunity for English teachers to improve teaching skills and broaden their horizons; also give rural English teachers a sense of confidence and affirmation.
      Thirdly, make full use of Anlong's local rich cultural resources to create a language environment and language materials for English learning. Encourage and take measures to support local curriculum research to incorporate local culture resources into English teaching materials. Take Renai Project English, Grade Eight Unit 8 Our Clothes as an example:
      This unit talks about clothes. Topic 3 focuses on Chinese traditional clothes, such as Cheongsam, Tang costume and some minority costumes.
      Anlong County attaches to the Buyi and Miao Autonomous Prefecture of Qianxiang, the southwest of Guizhou. There are many Buyi and Miao nationalities, students are familiar with Buyi and Miao clothes. In this part, Teachers can incorporate local minority costumes into the classroom and guide students to talk about and introduce local minority costumes in English. This kind of incorporating not creates a language environment but help students understand and spread local culture better.
      Geneva Gay put forward that the cultivation of intercultural communication ability can be based on other cultures, so culturally responsive teaching can also be implemented in multicultural areas by understanding the culture in minority areas and responding to students' local and national cultures in teaching; helping students form national self-esteem and self-confidence, establishing links between cultures, and learn to think about similarities and differences between cultures and appreciate and understand cultural diversity (Gevena ,2000).
      If there are many ethnic minorities in a class, teachers can guide students to explore the similarities and differences between ethnic cultures and English cultures, and also guide students to explore the similarities and differences between local cultures and foreign cultures. In a word, as long as students' cultural awareness and intercultural communication ability can be cultivated and local culture can be linked with other cultures, it is worth practicing as a cultural teaching method, which is conducive to the inheritance and development of minority culture and stimulates the learning motivation of minority students.
      4.2.3.2Pay Attention to English teaching in township junior middle schools
      1.Creating a Diversified English Learning Atmosphere
      First, schools should attach the importance to English teaching, provide students with a good English learning atmosphere, and stimulate students' learning enthusiasm through organizing various English activities. English communication activities can complement daily teaching very well. English learning is not only limited to classroom teaching, but also teachers' teaching and students' learning. English learning can also be diversified, which is helpful to arouse students' learning enthusiasm. To carry out rich and colorful English activities can be said to be one of the diversified ways of learning English. The contents and methods of the organized activities can be very flexible. The traditional English communication activities include English corners, various forms of competitions, morning reading, English guessing games, English stories telling, etc. Increasing the occurrence rate of English in campus life, For example, newspapers and periodicals to provide students with reading resources. Add an English publicity column to display information about English culture and English stories for students to browse. Add English to the campus radio so that English will reverberate in the campus and students will unconsciously integrate into the English learning atmosphere. Regularly organize students to watch English movies, so that students can hear pure and authentic English.
      English teachers in township junior middle schools should pay attention to the development and utilization of curriculum resources make full use of the advantages of multimedia to set up scenarios in teaching stimulate students' interest in learning and arouse their enthusiasm for learning. Teachers themselves can also use the network, television and newspapers to select relevant extracurricular materials suitable for students, supplement and enrich teaching resources, so that students can have more contact with the background knowledge of customs, culture, history, geography and other English-speaking countries, at the same time, cultivating their intercultural communication ability.
      2.Providing Financial Support to Township Junior Middle Schools
      It is difficult for township junior middle schools to provide teachers with good professional development, favorable salary and other conditions because of the geographical and economic disadvantages in rural areas, thus failing to attract and retain high-quality teachers to teach in rural areas for a long time. The phenomenon of high-quality teachers losing in rural areas is quite serious (Zhao 2016). In order to solve the problem of shortage of high-quality teachers in rural areas and the urgent need to improve the quality of teachers in rural areas, REAP will provide financial support in the fields of professional development, salary, welfare and recruitment of teachers in rural areas.
      We can learn from the experience of REAP, endow educational institutions and township junior middle schools more autonomy in the use of educational resources ( especially allocation funds ), allow educational institutions and schools in rural areas to flexibly and actively control all kinds of government allocations they received according to local specific educational needs and local educational and cultural backgrounds, and improve the government's supervision mechanism for the specific use of allocation funds. The use of allocation funds mainly supports the teacher's development, and teaching research in township junior middle schools.
      4.2.3.3Strengthen the Construction of English Teachers in Township Junior Middle Schools
      The improvement of English education in township junior middle schools requires a strong team of teachers. The quality and level of English teachers in township junior middle schools determine the quality of English education in townships. In view of the current shortage and low level of English teachers in township junior middle schools, the most urgent task is to establish high - quality, high-level and professional English teachers in township junior middle schools. We can start with the following aspects.
      1.Innovating the Teachers' Recruitment and Cultivate Retainable Teachers
      High-quality teachers can be regarded as the core component of educational resources for improving the quality of education in rural areas, which plays a very important resource-oriented role in improving the level of education in rural areas (Zhao 2016).
      The competent education department in rural areas should draw up a plan to continuously introduce specialized English teachers, so as to recruit some excellent English teachers. The newly recruited teachers have learned the latest English knowledge and will bring in the most advanced educational methods and teaching
      modes, thus gradually updating the outdated educational ideas and teaching modes in the countryside. On the other hand, this method can also continuously increase the number of English teachers in rural areas, and the number of specialized teachers will also increase, so the teaching volume of all English teachers will gradually decrease, and they will have more time to prepare lessons and supplement English knowledge, which is very helpful to improve their teaching level.
      Professor Yuan Guilin of Beijing Normal University, based on survey data, pointed out that the existing problems in the implementation of the current school-running standards have led to the tense work of teachers in rural primary and secondary schools. There are problems in the supplement of teachers, resulting in graduates from normal universities being unable to supplement teachers in rural areas. We should encourage the diversification of teachers' identities so as to strengthen the guarantee of teachers' sources. He said that the government is not allowed to have the power of second-ment or transfer primary and secondary school teachers, which leads to such a phenomenon “many teachers in the series but not on the job”.
      Establish a regular exchange and rotation system for teachers, and organize key school teachers in cities to help township junior middle schools, vigorously improve the economic treatment of teachers in rural areas, especially in remote and poor areas, and stabilize the rural teachers.
      In order to enable rural teachers to teach for a long time and for life in rural areas, it is necessary to carry out mechanism innovation in teachers' admission, employment, job title evaluation, assessment and honor recognition. Innovating the admission and employment mechanism of teachers, comprehensively determining the rural teacher establishment according to the class teacher ratio and the student teacher ratio, and allowing outstanding teachers who are interested in teaching in rural areas to enter the rural teachers team; Innovating the mechanism of job title evaluation and appointment, by inclining the rural areas, setting up the mechanism of high standards and combining evaluation and appointment, the rural teachers can make progress in their development. Innovating the honor recognition mechanism for teachers, through measures such as strengthening the recognition of rural teachers, setting up special high-level honorary titles for township teachers, and guiding the media to vigorously publicize outstanding township teachers, teachers with noble morality, high sense of mission and strong ability will be recognized and respected by the whole society.
      2.Improving English Teachers' Training
      UNESCO has clearly pointed out that one of the cores of education reform is to realize the reform of teachers' own development. Only when teachers' teaching skills are truly improved can the development of English education level be ensured, and only in this way can the development of education reform be promoted.
      Firstly, pay attention to schools' English teaching and researching activities. Schools carry out a variety of teaching and researching activities, such as listening to and commenting on lessons, lectures and competitions, teaching and researching seminars, preparing lesson collectively, etc. to stimulate their enthusiasm and initiative in their work, to strengthen mutual communication and learning between teachers, to share good teaching methods and teaching ideas, and to gradually improve teachers' teaching level and theoretical level.
      Secondly, provide regular training to the in-service English teachers. Since most of the existing English teachers are non - English majors, they generally lack of comprehensive understanding and knowledge of the English course. Therefore, it is very important for them to receive regular and comprehensive training. The forms of training can be diversified. Training classes for township junior middle schools English teachers can be held regularly in a planned way. Some well-known English education experts can also be invited to give academic lectures or short-term special training to township junior middle schools English teachers from time to time. Excellent English teachers in cities can come to the countryside to take demonstration classes and rural school English teachers also can go to urban schools to study. Through these diversified training and studies, the ideological understanding and practical level of English teachers in township junior middle schools will be gradually improved.
      Lastly, encourage school-based teaching research. Education is a wake-up project, awakening people's souls (Xiang 2019). As a teacher, only by awakening himself can more people be awakened. “School-based teaching and research” is to “wake up” teachers' sleeping research consciousness, to enhance their self-awareness and enable teachers to obtain a sublimation of life and realization of self-value (Hua 2018).
      Teachers' professional development relies on the classroom teaching, the school-based curriculum and teaching research. Hua pointed out that as a teacher, our main job should not only in the classes. Teachers' working hours are far more than 8 hours a day, and the classes hours are far less than 13 %. What are you doing at the rest of the time? Preparing lessons, correcting homework, thinking about problems, talking with students, communicating with peers, etc, the combination of these things is so called teaching research. As long as there are clear objectives, awareness of problems, expectation of improving teaching quality, and yearning to discover and follow laws when doing these things, it is called teaching research. School-based teaching researches involve professional researchers. Schools should actively seek their support and guidance. Professional researchers should participate in the construction of the school-based teaching research system on their own initiative, exerting their professional leading role, providing practical and effective help to schools and teachers and collecting education and teaching problems from the front-line teachers and organizing teachers to study the problems.
      Compulsory education in rural areas is an important part of compulsory education in our country. Students in township junior middle schools are all from local and remote villages in Anlong County. If there is no healthy development of compulsory education in rural areas, there will be no balanced development of compulsory education (Fan 2013). The quality of English teaching in township junior middle schools reflects rural students' English learning situation, also has an effect on rural students' further study since English has been an important part for higher education entrance examination, thus the improvement of rural English teaching shouldn't be ignored.
      4.2.3.4Pay Attention to the Use of Modern Technology in English Teaching
      The combination of teaching and modern information technology has become an irresistible trend in modern education since the widely use of modern technology. On one hand, it provides more accesses for students to get new information and opportunities to interacting with the outside world in rural areas. On the other hand, the combination of teaching and modern information technology poses great challenges to teachers in the aspects of the use of modern technology and the change of teaching methods in rural areas. Moreover, modern technology completely changes the traditional single teaching model of teacher-centered class.
      In the aspect of improving the capacity of using modern technology, at first, basic knowledge of computer need to be taught for those rural teachers who are lacking of, such as word, excel and PowerPoint, they are the base of making teaching courseware. On the second, popularize the basic use of Class Access to ICTs multimedia teaching equipment, through it has been installed for more than two years in rural schools in Anlong County, based on the investigation of the use of multimedia equipment, only 19 teachers, account for 28% make full use of the multimedia in teaching, more than 72% of the English teachers seldom or never use it for the lack of using skills in rural schools, thus young teachers and computer science teachers can complete the training work for those teachers in schools, it will increase the utilization of multimedia in language teaching classes. English teachers should make full use of technical means to organize English teaching procedures in various ways so that students can initiatively join in the classroom teaching. For example, teachers can integrate the ppt template of the teaching content to organize activities, let the students combine the video material to make short plays. Through these activities, students obtain the experience of language using in the real language environment, and their oral English ability communicative ability are both practiced and improved. Just as the old Chinese saying that tell me and I will forget; show me, and I may remember; involve me and I will understand, which focuses on student participation in the learning process.
      The other aspect of renewing teaching methods relies on English teachers' self-improvement in rural areas. There are many ways to get new information in teaching, through the Internet, observing excellent teachers' classes, watching outstanding English classes on the Internet, and so on. Many online teaching resources are available for rural teachers to download and intergrade into their own teaching course after grasping the basic computer using skills.
      The use of cellphone and other study machines in classes also need to be taken into account in township junior middle schools. The disadvantages of using mobile phones cannot completely negate its advantages for students' study; the dispute is how to control and leading students using cellphone for study. One feasible way may be that choosing one or three students to be responsible for sending and receiving students' cellphones in the class, students are allowed to use their cellphones to practice English in some English study Apps within the specified time. In this way, rural students can really involve in the use of English and have a better understanding of the language using trend in the world.
      Only by having a wide range of knowledge and experience in English learning software, can we know their characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, and further design and organize effective learning activities based on the use of technology (Yang 2018). Making full use of modern technology in English teaching in townships middle schools and improving the English teachers' teaching ability, especially in the use of modern technology are key point for rural English teaching development.
      4.3Summary
      The research results and analysis of the English teaching in 9 township junior middle schools in Anlong County reflect that teaching problems, such as the shortage of professional English teachers, teaching counts without considering the rural situation and unscientific teaching evaluation exist in English teaching in this area. Factors influencing the improvement of English teaching are the outdated concept of English education, less investment in rural education and students lacking of English learning motivation in township junior middle schools. Based on the limited teaching reality, some suggestions are given for improving English teaching in township junior middle schools in Anlong County, such as emphasis on English education in townships, increase educational investment in township junior middle schools, strengthen the construction of English teachers and pay attention to modern technology in English teaching in township junior middle schools. Secondly, Less investment in rural English education which is mainly reflected in government, social and family, less education investment from governments, less social support and less investment from family.
      Chapter 5 Conclusion
      This chapter summarizes the major findings of this study, gives the implications, and puts forward the limitations of the study and suggestions for future research.
      5.1Major Findings
      Here are some findings to answer the two research questions.
      Based on the analysis of questionnaire data and interviews, problems existing in English teaching in township middle schools in Anlong County are as follows. Firstly, the shortage of professional English teachers not only on quantity but also on quality, According to the investigation of English Teachers' Academic Qualifications in Anlong township junior middle schools, 25 % of English teachers are non-English major graduates. On the other hand, many teachers do not understand the teaching theories and teaching methods often used in teaching. It is very difficult to meet the requirements of English Curriculum Standard due to the single knowledge structure of English teachers in township middle schools. Secondly, teaching contents without considering the rural situation. Renai Book has been used for English teaching more than ten years in this area, but some topics and vocabularies do not appear in students' daily life, so it's both difficult for students to learn and master the vocabularies and English teachers to start the teaching. At last, unscientific teaching evaluation, the pursuit of scores and graduation rates lead to a bad condition that the examination contents decide what to teach and what to learn. Students can't find the pleasure in English learning under the examination-oriented education and an unreasonable teaching evaluation has a bad effect on students' comprehensive development. All kinds of test scores and the rates of school graduate students entered a higher school have been a main evaluating items for students, teachers and schools which lead the education moving around the test scores.
      The main factors that influence the development of English teaching in township junior middle schools are analyzed from three aspects. Firstly, the outdated concept of English education which involves less use of modern technology in English teaching, outdated ideas from parents, teachers and schools. Investigation of the frequency of multimedia usage in English class teaching in 9 township junior middle schools shows that only 19 teachers, account for 28% make full use of the multimedia in teaching, more than 72% of the English teachers seldom or never use it. About 22% of the parents don't think it is necessary to learn English according to the investigation. Schools pay less attention to English than other subjects, both schools and English teachers seldom even never hold English activities, 72% of the investigated students indicate they have no chance to join the enjoyable English activities. Secondly, less investment in rural English education, governments and family pay less attention to English education in rural areas. Also English teaching gets less social supports in rural areas compared with other subjects, no activities are specially held for English and rural English teachers from schools to local areas, it's difficult for an English teacher to get a chance to learn from others and self-reflect on teaching. Thirdly, students lack of English learning motivation mainly for their poor English rudiments and family influence. In rural areas, families, schools and society lack of English learning environment and pragmatic environment, students don't understand why need to study English.
      The quality of English teaching in township middle schools reflects rural students' English learning situation, also has an effect on rural students' further study since English has been an important part for higher education entrance examination, thus the improvement of English teaching shouldn't be ignored in townships.
      5.2Implications
      Education is a wake-up project of awakening people's souls. As a teacher, only by awakening himself/ herself can more people be awakened. Also, the basic education in rural areas cannot be separated from the perseverance of rural teachers, and the improvement of basic education in rural areas depends on the perseverance of preeminent teachers.
      1.Cultivating the awareness of English teachers' teaching research in township junior middle schools
      As a teacher, only by awakening himself can more people be awakened. “School -based teaching and research” is to “wake up” teachers' sleeping research consciousness, to enhance their self-awareness and enable teachers to obtain a sublimation of life and realization of self-value. Teachers' professional development relies on the classroom teaching, the school-based curriculum and teaching research. participating in the construction of the school-based teaching research system and make full use of local rich cultural resources to create a language environment and language materials for English teaching and to cultivate student' intercultural communication ability.
      Schools carry out a variety of teaching and researching activities, such as listening to and commenting on lessons, lectures and competitions, teaching and researching seminars, preparing lesson collectively, etc. to stimulate their enthusiasm and initiative in their work, to strengthen mutual communication and learning between teachers, to share good teaching methods and teaching ideas, and to gradually improve teachers' teaching level and awareness of advanced teaching theories. Also, training classes for rural schools English teachers can be held regularly in a planned way. Some well-known English education experts can also be invited to give academic lectures or short-term special training to rural schools English teachers from time to time. Excellent English teachers in cities can come to the countryside to take demonstration classes and rural school English teachers also can go to urban schools to study. Through these diversified training and studies, the ideological understanding and practical level of English teachers in rural schools will be gradually improved.
      2.Developing local curriculum
      Anlong County, a city with rich tourist attractions, colorful clothes of Buyi and Miao ethnic minorities, and lavish culture resources, in order to make full use of Anlong's local cultural resources, inherit excellent traditional culture, Anlong County Education Bureau and the office of Anlong County History compiled local textbooks such as Anlong Culture, Highland Lotus City&Charming Anlong. Those books are part of schools curriculums taught in Chinese and history class in Anlong County, thus give local students a better understand of local culture and cultivate students' culture awareness and spread local culture.
      Those rich local cultural resources can also provide a language environment and language materials for English learning in the multi-ethnic locating areas where rural people have no chance to touch the outside world and English using. Local curriculum in English should be taken into account for rural English teaching.
      The rural education administrative departments and schools should abandon the old idea of examination-oriented education and realize the reasonableness and the importance of English, create more chance for English teaching and learning, moreover, encourage and take measures to support local curriculum research to incorporate local culture resources into English teaching materials, give English learners a chance and a stage to show on. What's more, this is also a good way to cultivate rural students' culture confidence and promote the local ethnic culture characteristics enter into the international stage.
      3.Improving the capacity of using modern technology in English teaching in township junior middle schools
      The combination of teaching and modern information technology has become an irresistible trend in modern education since the widely use of modern technology. On one hand, it provides more accesses for students to get new information and opportunities to interacting with the outside world in rural areas. On the other hand, the combination of teaching and modern information technology poses great challenges to teachers in the aspects of the use of modern technology and the change of teaching methods in rural areas. Moreover, modern technology completely changes the traditional single teaching model of teacher-centered class.
      Depending on young teachers and computer science teachers to complete the computer knowledge training work for those teachers who lack of in schools, it will increase the utilization of multimedia in language teaching classes. English teachers should make full use of technical means to organize English teaching procedures in various ways so that students can initiatively join in the classroom teaching.
      5.3Limitations
      Many limitations exist in this thesis for the process of data collection. First, only a part of students and schools are invested, so the research conclusion is not met with general acceptance, because of the limited scope of the research objects and investigation.
      Second, about the use of cellphone in rural schools is just the author's advice, in fact, there is no actual implementation in rural schools, so the actual operation and its implementation in the use of modern technology need a further study in rural schools.
      Third, there is one middle school, Dushan Middle School, obtains a good examination result in English teaching among the 9 township junior middle schools, with 83.79 the highest average score in 2017, a relative pretty result in rural areas. With a total score of 150 points, the average score of the whole township junior middle schools is always between 40 and 60 points, but its average scores keep at least 70 and keep increasing year by year and the average scores exceeded 80 points in 2017 and 2018. It's very arresting to get such a high scores in township middle schools; however, lack of further study on this middle school because of time limited, the author will continue to do this research on this middle school to research their English teaching in the next step.
      5.4Suggestions for Further Research
      The participants are supposed to be chosen more widely. Only a part of students participate in the questionnaire survey and some teachers are interviewed in this research due to the author's limited time and analysis ability, the number and scope of the research respondents are restricted. So more English teachers and students should be taken into account in order to get more accurate data, thus the results of the investigation and relate strategies will be more representative and practical.
      Further studies should make full use of more research instruments to make the research results closer to the facts. Data analysis only depends on simple Microsoft Excel and other Software analyzing in this research because of author's limited data analysis ability, more advanced data processing modes are adopted in further studies.
      Investigation and research on English teaching in township junior middle schools is of great significance for promoting the development of English teaching in townships in this area. The factors that affect the development of English teaching are found accurately from the investigation and research, which provide suggestions for the improvement of school management and offer basis to the policy formulation of education administrative department. English teachers play an irreplaceable role during the development of English teaching in township junior middle schools. Therefore, how to cultivate their teaching research awareness need to be further studied.
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