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      多元評價在小學英語教學中運用的行動 研究

      發布時間:2023-06-28 10:10
      Contents
      Abstract i
      摘 要 iii
      Contents I
      Chapter One Introduction 1
      1.1Research Background 1
      1.2Purpose and Significance of the Study 3
      1.3Overall Structure of Thesis 4
      Chapter Two Literature Review 5
      2.1Related Definitions 5
      2.1.1Summative Assessment 5
      2.1.2Formative Assessment 6
      2.1.3Multi-assessment 7
      2.2Theoretical Basis 8
      2.2.1Multiple Intelligences Theory 8
      2.2.2Constructivism Learning Theory 9
      2.3Studies on Multi-assessment in English Teaching 11
      2.3.1Studies on Multi-assessment Abroad 11
      2.3.2Studies on Multi-assessment in China 13
      Chapter Three Methodology 16
      3.1Research Questions 16
      3.2Research Participants 16
      3.3Research Instruments 17
      3.3.1Questionnaire 17
      3.3.2Interview 18
      3.3.3Class Obervation 19
      3.3.4Reflective Journal 19
      3.4Data Collection and Data Analysis 20
      Chapter Four Action Research Implementation 21
      4.1Problem Identification 21
      4.2Hypothesis 22
      4.2.1Pre-investigation 22
      4.2.2Rationale 23
      4.2.3Review of Hypothesis 24
      4.3Plan Making 24
      4.4Plan Implementation 28
      4.5Plan Adjustment 33
      4.6The Results of the Implementation of Multi-assessment and Discussion 35
      4.6.1Results and Discussion of Questionnaires 35
      4.6.2Results and Discussion of Observation 39
      4.6.3Results and Discussion of Journals 40
      4.6.4Results and Discussion of Tests 44
      4.6.5Results and Discussion of Interview 45
      4.7Reflection 48
      Chapter Five Conclusion 50
      5.1 Major Findings 50
      5.2Pedagogical Implications 51
      5.2.1 Designing Assessment Mechanism Catering to Primary Students 51
      5.2.2Strengthening Communication with Parents 51
      5.2.3Taking Students as the Main Body of English Teaching 52
      5.3Limitations of the Study 53
      5.4Suggestions for Future Studies 53
      References 55
      Appendix One Questionnaire Before Action 57
      Appendix Two Questionnaire After Action 58
      Appendix Three Interview 60
      Appendix Four Test Score of Final Test 64
      Appendix Five Observation Record 66
      About the Author 68
      Chapter One Introduction
      1.1Research Background
      Assessment, serving as an important teaching link, is a method to check teaching effectiveness and students' learning achievements. The purpose of education assessment is to cultivate students both mentally and academically. Scientific assessment system is the guarantee for students to accomplishing the learning goals, and it also serves as a stimulating force to promote students' interest in learning. In 2001, the Ministry of Education issued new assessment guidelines, advocating that multi-assessment is supposed to be widely propagated and used. Students' academic performance and potential development also need to be taken into consideration in assessing students' academic achievements. Education assessment must be multiple as well as beneficial for students' long-term development. The neglection of students' academic performances in the learning process goes against the New Curriculum Standards as well as the new education ideas advocating students' overall development.
      However, the current assessment in primary English teaching is far from satisfactory. The preliminary investigation shows that the final exam is still the one and only yardstick for assessing students' English learning achievements in Jiankou Primary School. As a result, students' learning performances in the daily learning process are ignored, and the cultivation of students' long-term development comes to nothing. The assessment methods are also unitary and monotonous, focusing only on teachers' assessment of students, ignoring students' self-evaluation, peer-evaluation and parents' evaluation of students, which is contrary to the requirements of the New Curriculum Standards and the goal of cultivating students' overall development.
      The author has been engaged in primary English teaching for five years. Through class observations and teaching practice, it is noticed that education evaluation model is relatively single and mono-dimensional. Teachers exclusively use the summative evaluation method to evaluate students, and ignore the significance of formative assessment in the learning process. (Guan Ying, 2005) On the other hand, almost all the parents focus only on test scores, and students' routine learning performances are totally ignored. To a certain extent, the above factors have led to the decrease of students' interest in learning English though students' test scores keep going up. (Mai Fengjie, 2013) In this study 40 students of Class Six, Grade Six of Jiankou Primary School are taken as the participants and the multi-assessment in English teaching is carried out in order to find out how teachers should apply multi-assessment to primary English teaching to promote students' learning interest; how teachers should apply multi-assessment to primary English teaching to help students develop good learning habits and help them to improve learning achievements.
      First of all, based on the information collected from the pre-questionnaire, the actual situation of English teaching and the author's personal teaching practice, the existing problems with the current assessment method in English teaching are identified, and then the reasons, both implicit and explicit are analyzed. The multi-assessment method was implemented, which lasted for one semester. It is hoped that the experimental results would provide pedagogical implications for other English teachers. Secondly, the Primary English Curriculum Standard (2011) also clearly proposed that in the process of implementing the evaluation, the formative assessment and the summative evaluation should be combined, and the students should be evaluated by multiple evaluation methods. Therefore, the author's experimental results can also provide a reference for the implementation of the new curriculum reform. Thirdly, in the process of the experiment, the author not only paid attention to the implementation of teacher evaluation in our school, but also paid attention to the students' tendency and attitude towards teacher evaluation. The survey was conducted among both teachers and students, which made the survey results more comprehensive and the experimental research results more reliable.
      Based on the current situation of the assessment in primary school English teaching, three specific purposes need to be accomplished, which are to promote students learning interest, develop good learning habits, and improve students' learning achievements when applying multi-assessment to primary school English teaching.
      1.2Purpose and Significance of the Study
      First of all, this study is designed to enable students to continuously make the progress and gain achievements in English learning, know about themselves, build confidence and promote the comprehensive ability.
      Secondly, the purpose is to enable teachers to obtain feedback information of English teaching, reflect on their own teaching behaviors and make appropriate adjustments, and promote teachers to continuously improve their teaching ability.
      Thirdly, this study can make the school understand the implementation of curriculum standards, improve teaching management, and promote the continuous and efficient development of English classroom teaching.
      The fundamental purpose of the evaluation of multiple intelligences is to help promote students' overall development. Getting a grade, or a descriptive report from an evaluation is not as important as promoting a student's development. According to the theory of multiple intelligences, the evaluation of students should also be varied and multiple, covering every intelligence, and giving each intelligence equal attention.
      Once teachers have a full understanding of the importance of multi-assessment and develop a positive view towards it, they would observe students' performances in class from various angles, looking for the advantages of each individual student, discovering and exploring their potentials, and giving the most earnest hope to every student.
      Following the student evaluation of the new curriculum reform direction, teachers need to acknowledge students' individual differences and recognize that the inherent development of the students is not evenly balanced. Student's evaluation should be based on the layered content diversity, standards, and attaches great importance to the evaluation for the promotion of student autonomy development and the establishment of self-confidence. The evaluation of multiple intelligences and comprehensive evaluation system are proposed in the new curriculum reform and it aims at promoting students comprehensive development and autonomous learning ability.
      1.3Overall Structure of the Thesis
      There are five chapters in the paper. Chapter One is introduction, including the research background, purpose and significance and the layout of the thesis. Chapter Two reviews related definitions, such as summative assessment and formative assessment. Furthermore, theoretical basis and previous research on multi-assessment in English teaching are presented. The third chapter gives a general picture of the research design, including research questions, subjects, research instruments and the ways of data collection. The forth chapter is the most important chapter of the paper. In this chapter, the whole process of the implementation of the multi-assessment in primary English teaching is elaborated. Furthermore, the information and data obtained are analyzed and discussed. The final chapter shows the major findings of the study. At last, limitations and suggestions for further study are also listed.
      Primary English teaching is an important part of basic education. All the links of basic education are mutually restrictive. To achieve great achievements in basic education reform, it is necessary to make reforms in terms of textbooks, teaching methods and evaluation method. The summative assessment is obviously not in line with the concept of new courses, nor with the evaluation concept of education for students.
      Chapter Two Literature Review
      2.1Related Definitions
      Teaching assessment refers to the systematic collection of information about students learning behaviors and the reference to the predetermined teaching objectives. The purpose of the evaluation is to make decisions on courses, teaching methods and student training programs. In a word, teaching assessment is a systematic and continuous process, including setting evaluation goals and collecting relevant resources. Teaching evaluation emphasizes the value judgment process based on education target, and emphasizes the use of multiple methods (measurement and non-measurement. It can reflect the learning results of students, or teaching effect, and it even can represent some education phenomenon, teaching activities, education purpose and education process. Teaching evaluation also stresses the service of student development and education decision-making. The most important purpose of teaching evaluation is not to prove teaching, but to improve it. There are different ways to evaluate teaching and assess students' academic performances.
      2.1.1Summative Assessment
      Summative assessment is made at the end of a teaching programme or module, which is very different from formative assessment that is ongoing throughout a course and doesn't grade students according to the results of final exams. Summative assessment is used to score and grade students' learning performance according to the results of final exams.
      Summative assessment results can provide motivation for students to study in order to achieve a good grade. (Chen Yukun, 1999) If the result of a summative assessment is positive, it can really boost a student's confidence and make them more motivated. Summative assessment has only two results: pass or fail, which can cause students a lot of stress. Students' performances in the exam, which is done under stress and anxiety, can usually give a misleading signal. Thus, it can be difficult to create a reliable and valid summative assessment. If summative assessment isn't constructed in a way that represents all the materials it needs to cover, then it can be inaccurate. Since summative assessment takes place at the end of a programme, it may be too late to focus on areas that the students are struggling with. On the contrary, formative assessment can identify the problems that students have in the learning process and teachers might adjust their teaching methods or strategies to help students find solutions to solve the problems.
      2.1.2Formative Assessment
      Formative assessment is an ongoing assessment that provides feedback to students throughout the learning process as well as monitor their learning. Formative assessment can be used by instructors to improve their teaching methods and it can be used by students to make sure that they get the most out of their learning. Formative assessment is used to help students identify their strengths and weaknesses so they know what is going well and which areas they need to work on. Unlike summative assessment, formative assessment is not to grade students according to their performances at the one final exam. Generally speaking, most students feel less worried and more comfortable with formative assessment, because they don't think they will fail, because their performances are assessed during the daily and regular learning process, which can truly reflect their learning situation. Formative assessment takes place throughout the learning process, not just at the end of the semester. This means any problem can be identified at an early stage. The earlier a problem can be identified, the sooner it can be solved. But there are some limitations and weaknesses about formative assessment. It can be harder for the assessor to stay objective when using formative assessment as there isn't a marking yardstick. As a result, students do not take formative assessment seriously.
      2.1.3Multi-assessment
      Multi-assessment refers to the diversified characteristics of assessment, mainly consisting of formative assessment and summative assessment. It is also a diversified evaluation method combining self-evaluation and evaluation of others. Multi-assessment is not only the evaluation of students according to a standard model of multiple evaluation, but the use of diverse means systematically evaluating students' learning process, learning strategies and even emotions (Gao Qian, 2015:23).
      Multi-assessment is a series of methods and techniques of modern education evaluation based on certain criteria on development process and condition of students' ideological morality, academic achievement, personality development, emotional attitude and physical fitness to conduct factual and value judgment activities (Cai Yucui, 2001:34). It's also significant to promote the all-round development of students. It is one of the new curriculum concepts to establish the proper multivariate evaluation view and evaluation criteria. Student assessment is the most important component of education evaluation and the core of education evaluation. It can guide the teaching of education. Evaluation of students should be conducted through various channels, in many forms, and in many ways. Multivariate evaluation is to promote the overall development of each individual student.
      The multi-assessment is the combination of two or more methods assessing students' learning achievements in the learning processes, which is different from the traditional evaluation method using the single mode of paper test. There are different types of assessment in multi-assessment such as the performance assessment, the portfolio assessment, and the oral evaluation and so on. The main current means of teaching evaluation in primary schools is mostly traditional paper test, and the final exam conducted at the end of semester is considered as the most effective and reliable means, however, the presentation of the effects of the evaluation is limited. There are also some problems caused by single test paper evaluation such as bias and discrimination, and these are not beneficial to students' learning and personal development.
      The purpose of the teaching evaluation is not to discriminate and rank the students according to their grades, but to promote the better development of the students, and ultimately realize the all-round development of the students.
      2.2Theoretical Basis
      2.2.1Multiple Intelligences Theory
      Teaching based on the theory of multiple intelligences has been addressed by many foreign scholars since Gardner had proposed it in 1983. Howard Gardner(1983), a professor of psychology at Harvard University in the United States studied theory of multiple intelligences. The Theory of multiple intelligences was first proposed in The Theory of Multiple Intelligences(2011). The concept of multiple intelligences was recognized by many researchers before being applied to classroom teaching. A wide range of positive effects were proved by early studies in America. From then on, theoretical research extended from the field of genius education to the field of common basic education, special education and adult education.
      Intelligences were influenced by different cultural and social backgrounds. In Intelligence Reformed published in 1999, Gardener enriched his theory and put forward eight intelligences including linguistic intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, spatial intelligence, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, musical intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence, and naturalist intelligence. Gardner (1999) also pointed out that intelligences should not be limited to these eight types of intelligences, and he emphasized that each type of intelligences had sub-intelligences and general intelligences. Different intelligences were able to show different ideas. For an individual, there was not only one kind of intelligences. People had combination of multiple capabilities. When solving a specific problem, individuals automatically integrate these abilities based on the actual situation. There are different strengths and weaknesses in ability system of a person, so there are areas of competences in dealing with problems. Therefore, teachers should also design a variety of evaluation content, not only from the learning results but also from various dimensions, such as their study habits, learning interests and academic achievements, so the multi-intelligences of students can be stimulated.
      The biggest enlightenment of the theory of multiple intelligences to education workers is that they should treat all kinds of intelligences from a macroscopic perspective. Learning result should not be judged by a single intelligence in teaching, but should be valued through a variety of ways, so students with different intelligences can do their best. Every student has his own uniqueness in intelligences. (Jiao Wen, 2010) When making the assessment, teachers should evaluate students' intelligences in a fair, objective and comprehensive way. What's more, teacher should truthfully consider the learning quality and ability of each student at every particular learning stage. Students can build their confidence by seeing their strengths in a fair, objective and comprehensive assessment system. At the same time, teacher can have a knowledge of student's learning characteristics and learning status of students accurately. The theory of multiple intelligences implies that students should be measured from multiple angles.
      2.2.2Constructivism Learning Theory
      Constructivism theory is one of the primary theoretical bases for scaffolding instruction. It was initially put forward in the 1960s by Jean Piaget (1972), who was a famous Swiss psychologist known for his epistemological studies of children's mind. Later on, many other scholars, especially Bruner and Vygotsky, enriched and popularized Constructivism theory, employing it as a guidance for teaching and learning methodology.
      Piaget developed the theory of Constructivism based on his view of children's psychological development. In To Understand is to Invent (1972), Piaget figured out that discovery was the fundamental basis of learning. In his original words, “to understand is to discover, or reconstruct by rediscovery and such conditions must be complied with if in the future individuals are to be formed who are capable of production and creativity and not simply repetition.” (Piaget, 1954) To reach an understanding of basic phenomena, according to Piaget (1954), children must discover relationships and ideas through autonomous activities in classroom situations.
      Vygotsky's theory of social construction further advanced the development of constructivism. He thought that knowledge was a kind of meaning construction, through the interaction between individuals and their cognitive process. Social communication played an important role in the development of cognition. Students' learning was set in the certain social interaction, not isolated. Peer interaction affected the style of cognition and construction of meaning. Cognitive psychologist Bruner introduced the Scaffolding Instruction in the 1950s. He believed that the process of Scaffolding Instruction was to create situations to help students succeed in learning easily. As the students' cognitive level gradually improved, the teacher should withdraw step by step to support students. At last students can complete learning all by themselves. Therefore, Constructivism emphasizes students construct knowledge actively under the guidance of teachers. According to the cognitive development of students, teacher should give them a mutual exchange of learning platform and let them have a better meaning construction in the interactive scenario.
      From the constructivist perspective, the process of teaching is not passing knowledge on to students. On the contrary, students build their own cognitive structure and construct knowledge actively, as is supported by Von Glasemfield in his saying that “knowledge is not passively imparted but imitatively constructed by the cognitive subjects” (Von Glasemfield, 1995). Accordingly, the process of learning not only includes the simple activities of inputting and storing knowledge but also involves a series of active cognitive activities in learners' mind, for instance, the collision between old and new concepts, the interaction between old and new experience, as well as the internalization of new knowledge through assimilation and accommodation with the assistance of old knowledge and learning environment.
      Instructed by constructivism theory, effective learning embodies a couple of characteristics. First of all, constructive learning should be goal-oriented, just as any other learning. There must be a purpose in a process of learning. Guided by certain objectives, learners tend to make efforts to achieve what is desired. Secondly, constructivist learning is based on inferential comprehension, by way of which learners play an active role in the exploration and construction of new knowledge. Thirdly, constructivist learning is also based on self-monitoring. Learners diagnose and reflect upon their learning activities through metacognition and self-tests or judgments. Last but not least, the significance of contexts or situations can help learners a lot to build their own understandings.
      To be brief, learners do not play passive roles. Instead, learners frame or formulate their own understanding or knowledge initiatively based on their prior knowledge and experience (Savery & Duffy, 2001). Apart from the necessary resources and environment for teaching and learning, a variety of contextual factors and cooperative activities on the learners' side should also be taken into consideration. These constructivist principles work exactly as the basis for scaffolding instruction and lay a theoretical foundation for the five steps of scaffolding instruction, which include getting into a context or situation, scaffolding setting, independent exploration, cooperative learning and evaluation.
      2.3Studies on Multi-assessment in English Teaching
      2.3.1Studies on Multi-assessment Abroad
      In the 1930s, the American educator R. W. Tyler proposed the concept of education evaluation, as the beginning of studies of multi-assessment. In the 1950s and 1960s, Cronbach (1981) put forward a new evaluation view on the basis of questioning Taylor's education evaluation theory. Based on their researches, Cronbach believed that the greatest contribution evaluation could make was to identifying areas for improvement in the tutorial. From then on, people began to change the concept of evaluation gradually, using evaluation as a process of collecting materials and promoting the development of curriculum. On this basis, Scriven (1998), a famous American expert in evaluation field, published the paper on evaluation methodology. According to the different purposes of education, he divided education evaluation into formative evaluation and terminal evaluation, and proposed the concept of formative assessment for the first time. Influenced by the thought of Scriven, Bloom further divided teaching evaluation into three categories: diagnostic, formative and terminal, and put forward the idea that evaluation was for improvement. These classifications were the basic of evaluation. In the 1980s, on the basis of the value orientation of development of personality, the research on education evaluation became more and more intensive. In 1981, Cornbach pointed out, “the purpose of education evaluation is not only to test whether education goals are achieved, but more importantly to provide educators with learning conditions of learners and information for educators to better conduct teaching.” (Cronbach, 1981) Michael Scriven (1984) proposed the goal dissociation model in 1984, "we should not only conduct teaching evaluation, but also use the information reflected by teaching evaluation." Crooks (1988) and Sadler (1989) published two papers on formative assessment, and they believed formative assessment aimed at promoting student learning”. At this period, evaluation was considered as a process of psychological construction, which advocated the use of diversified teaching evaluation. In addition, evaluators should participate in the process and construct comprehensively together. The theory of multi-assessment was developed by Howard Gardner. Since the 1970s, education evaluators have been expecting to develop a new evaluation theory. They believed that the traditional evaluation theory had great limitations in practical application because many of them originated from psychological measurement and experiments. In view of this, Khumba Lincoln proposed the concept of “co-construction”, which changed the object of evaluation from the object to the subject. This view emphasized democracy, cooperation, diversification and more accurate evaluation results.
      Based on the studies above, Wiggins (1993:102) pointed out that student's feeling and interest were seldom taken into consideration when evaluating students' performance. Since then, many scholars have paid more attention to the study of learning process, and the emphasis of evaluation has also changed. The emphasis has shifted to the evaluation of learning process and students' learning ability, and students' thoughts and feelings have also been valued as well. In recent years, many primary and middle school educators in the United States have adjusted their education evaluation philosophies. The most influential way of evaluation is the way of multiple evaluation.
      In addition to paying attention to the results, process is also valued in mult-assessment. Students' emotion, attitude and learning method are also the content of evaluation. The subject of evaluation is not only for educators, but also for learners. The evaluation methods are diversified. In addition to the traditional examinations, a variety of evaluation methods, such as interview, observation, behavior performance evaluation, learning attitude evaluation, student growth record bag and evaluation scale, were also developed. Many western countries regarded this multiple evaluation method as an effective way to develop education. For example, France attached great importance to the evaluation of students' learning attitude, and only ranks third in the evaluation of students' academic performance. In the UK, both students and parents can participate in the teaching evaluation, and students can also put forward different views and opinions on the evaluation made by teachers. All these reflect the diversified development direction of evaluation subjects and evaluation methods (Lu Yan, 2011:14-15). The theory of multiple intelligences attaches importance to students' ability of language expression, logical reasoning and thinking.
      2.3.2Studies on Multi-assessment in China
      The research on the field of multi-assessment started late in China. From the 1920s to the 1980s, education evaluation in China was mainly summative examination, and students' learning was evaluated by scores of the exams. As a result, children who do not perform well in these two fields gradually lose the opportunity to perform, and thus lose confidence and are unwilling to study hard. The blame from parents and teachers make them lose more confidence in study.
      Since the 1980s, with the introduction of western evaluation thought and the continuous development of education, function of education evaluation gained more attention than before. There were some highly advanced educational institutes which had began studies on assessment methods. However, the research scope of education evaluation at this stage is narrow, and it is limited to the research of professors and experts on the evaluation theory of education and the research of teachers on tests. In 1999, the CPC central committee issued the decision on deepening the reform of education and comprehensively promoting the quality of education. The summerative test should be changed.
      The evaluation methods began to be diversified. In addition to the traditional examinations, a variety of evaluation methods, such as interview, observation, behavior performance evaluation, learning attitude evaluation, student growth record bag and evaluation scale, were also developed. On December 27, 2002, the Ministry of Education issued a Notice to push forward the reform of evaluation and examination system of primary and secondary schools, to establish evaluation system in order to promote students' development. To guide teachers to improve the teaching design more effectively, and raise the quality of evaluation, and to promote the overall development of students, education experts in China are constantly committed to the translation and research of works on multiple evaluation theories. The reform of education provides the theoretical basis and direction of efforts.
      Luo Shaoqian (2003) translated works of the formative assessment of English teaching research, and Zhang Yutian (2003) wrote the school education evaluation. They were starting to apply more evaluation methods. These works or translation systematically introduce the theory of multiple evaluation system, and the pluralistic evaluation and combination of curriculum integration, project research, and reveal how to apply multiple intelligences to teaching evaluation and the evaluation of students, providing a good reference for the reform of national basic education material.
      Xia Huixian (2004) translated Multiple intelligence and multiple evaluation: using evaluation to promote student development and Multiple intelligence and project learning. Zhang Ling (2003) translated Multiple intelligences and learning styles. Bai Yun (2005) translated the Evaluation of multiple intelligences and gauges. The new curriculum advocates new learning methods, with autonomy, cooperation and exploration, so in the classroom teaching, the evaluation of students should be dominated by students instead of teachers. Teachers should make students learn to cooperate, communicate and grasp learning skills.
      Zhang Guoxiang (2007) studied the evaluation of multiple intelligences -- two pioneering school-based experimental studies. In the activities on class, students can get the power of assessment to students in various activities, such as reading competitions, investigation dialogue practice, the scene conversation and communication. They should be free to judge. They should be trained to evaluate others objectively. In the process, students learn to learn from each other, and at the same time they have developed a sense of competition and team spirit, which is conducive to their good personality formation.
      Chapter Three Methodology
      3.1Research Questions
      Based on the current situation of the assessment in primary school English teaching, and with a view to optimize the assessment methods and make the assessment more reasonable and reliable, three specific questions are to be addressed in this study.
      1.How should teachers apply multi-assessment to primary English teaching to promote students' learning interest?
      2.How should teachers apply multi-assessment to primary English teaching to help students develop good learning habits?
      3.How should teachers apply multi-assessment to primary English teaching to improve students' learning achievements?
      3.2Research Participants
      Forty sixth graders of Jiankou Primary School were chosen as participants in this study.
      All the forty six graders come from the same class that the author has been teaching. There were twenty boys and twenty girls in this class. It was a regular class in Jiankou Primary school. When the author took over this class in Grade Six, in the first semester, it was found that students were not well motivated in English learning and their interest and enthusiasm in English were pretty low. They hated to answer questions in class, and some of the students even refused to answer questions due to shyness or negative attitude towards English. The author kept wondering the factors contributing to their inactivity and passivity in class and hoped to change this situation by applying the multi-assessment strategy.
      3.3Research Instruments
      3.3.1Questionnaire
      The questionnaire in the experiment was designed to answer the three research questions presented above. The questionnaires were sent to students at the beginning and end of the semester to see if any changes happened after the application of multi-assessment in English teaching.
      In this study, there were two questionnaires and the pre-questionnaire was conducted among the students at the beginning of the autumn semester. In the pre-questionnaire, Question 1, Question 6 and Question 7 were designed to get some information about the general situation of primary students' learning interest and motivation. Question 4, Question 5, Question 10 and Question 12 in the pre-questionnaire were intended to know students' attitude towards current assessment mode. Question 2 was to get an overview of the students' confidence in English learning. Question 3, Question 9 and Question 13 were to get a general understanding of the learning habit of students.
      In the post-questionnaire, several questions were the same with the ones in the pre-questionnaire. The purpose of these questions was to see whether there had been changes after the experiment. Question 1, Question 2, Question 8, Question 9 and Question 13 were the same in the two questionnaires. Question 6 and Question 7 were set to inquire how students fitted in the new assessment mode. Question 3, Question 4 and Question 5 are designed to verify the effects of multi-assessment after the experiment from the perspective of learning motivation and learning habit.
      The data of both questionnaires were analyzed by Excel. 2007 to clarify the attitude of students to English learning and the current assessment mode. The new assessment guideline was designed and the result was recorded. After the questionnaire, Ten students were chosen at random to obtain information about their response to multi-assessment. For the case study, every assessment table was quoted for further analysis to see whether there were significant changes.
      3.3.2Interview
      An open interview was employed in this study. Representatives were selected randomly from the experimental class for the interview. The interview served as a complement to the questionnaire with a view to make study more reliable and valid. The interview outline included some broad and general questions to get some first-hand and authentic information about primary students' attitude and ideas of the new assessment mode.
      The outline of interview is as follows.
      1.What do you think of the summative assessment, that is, your English achievements are evaluated by mid-term and final tests?
      2.Do you like the new assessment mode of this semester?
      3.Do you find the multi-assessment beneficial to your English learning?
      4.Do you have any suggestions for assessment mode?
      The interviewees were free to make adjustments according to the actual situation of the interview. The interviewer did not have strict rules to obey and would let the students express their ideas and opinions freely. In the process of the interview, the interviewer would raise questions related to the interview outline, and the strategy of asking questions was from easy ones to complex ones.
      Interviewer would also pay attention to nonverbal communication, such as smiling at the person when asking a question. Furthermore, the interviewer needs to focus on the topic of the interview and avoid too much digression. Response needs not be to be limited to the interview outline, and the interview outline could be abandoned at the appropriate time. Interviewer needs to adjust interview strategies, such as, trying to speak as little as possible and encourage students to provide more information. The interview should listen attentively and respond appropriately and shouldn't interrupt the interviewee randomly.
      In order to make students feel more relaxed in answering questions and express themselves freely, the interview was carried out by the assistant of the author, in order to make students. Before the interview, the interviewees were ensured that their answers would not affect their English test results and their teachers' attitude toward them. The interviews were conducted outdoors in a friendly manner instead of in the office or classroom.
      3.3.3Class Observation
      In the class where multi-assessment was applied, the students' reaction and performance in class were observed and recorded in teaching journals for later qualitative analysis. The author would keep the daily records of what was observed. These journals were not all presented in this paper. Some of the journals were selected in the section below.
      Based on the records and journals, all the observation results were analyzed and the conclusion of the study was based on the observation results.
      3.3.4Reflective Journal
      During the implementation of the action research, the author kept on writing reflective journals after each class. The purpose of reflective journals was to record students' English learning status, learning attitude and learning effect.
      On the one hand, , the teacher wrote reflective journals after each lesson to record students' learning conditions, learning attitude and teaching effect to further reflect on teaching and the new assessment mode. On the other hand, students were encouraged to write journals to record their learning experience and their problems. The students were encouraged to write down reflective journals after class. They were suggested to record how they felt and summarized what they had learned, how they learned, and the problems that they met in study.
      3.4Data Collection and Data Analysis
      The study lasted for about four months. Before and after the experiment, two questionnaires were conducted, and each time, 40 copies were sent out and 40 copies were collected back, and the recovery rate was 100%. There were 9 questions in the questionnaire. Students were asked to choose their answers anonymously under the condition of complete relaxation, so as to ensure the reliability of the survey results.
      The data of this study were processed through SPSS data analysis 19.0. The questionnaire of this research was analyzed in the form of quantitative statistics. The data obtained from the class observation was also analyzed qualitatively.
      Chapter Four Action Research Implementation
      4.1Problem Identification
      With respect to the current situation of the assessment mechanism in primary English teaching, the traditional, single method of assessment is still widely used and holding the dominating position. Students' daily performances in regular English class are not taken into consideration when their learning achievements are evaluated. This arbitrary method of assessment does harm to students' learning interest and decreases their learning motivation and confidence, especially to those students who are actively and enthusiastically involved in class activities. The final exam is still widely recognized as the one and only yardstick to measure students' learning achievements. Those students who perform well in class may not do well in the final exam and their grades are far from satisfactory, because their daily performances are not included as part of the overall assessment, so these students might feel frustrated and depressed. Besides the pressure and blame from teachers and parents make students even more worried and stressed.
      The fact is that it is acknowledged by many educators that the rigid test system is damaging to students' learning initiative and enthusiasm and it is also the major factor that leads to depressing and monotonous class atmosphere, so it is urgent for teachers to do something to make reform and change the present situation. As the traditional summative assessment is proved to be arbitrary and has many disadvantages, and the more advanced formative assessment is considered as too subjective, the multi-assessment method may be a good choice, combining summative assessment and formative assessment. It is hoped that the multi-assessment method would avoid the arbitrariness of the summative assessment and overcome the subjectiveness of the formative assessment.
      4.2Hypothesis
      Before the experiment, students are supposed to be informed of the principles and criteria of the new evaluation method and have a clear idea about how their achievements in English would be assessed. Students are supposed to take active participation in the teaching practice and do what they are asked to do both in class and out of class. This study intends to implement multi-assessment method with a view to promote primary students' learning interest in English, help students form good learning habits and improve their learning achievements.
      4.2.1Pre-investigation
      In this study, 40 sixth graders of Jiankou Primary School were chosen as the participants. To test the hypothesis mentioned above, two questionnaires were designed and distributed among these 40 students. One was to get an overview of the current situation of the assessment in primary school in the beginning of semester. The other one was aimed to find out whether there would be any changes in terms of students' learning interest, learning habit and learning achievement after the application of multi-assessment at the end of the semester. According to the pre-questionnaire, more than 70% of the students thought the daily performance should also be part of the assessment. For this question, some interviews were also conducted to learn about students' attitudes to the present assessment method. Some students said that the results of the final exam sometimes failed to tell everything about the students' English achievements, because some students cheated in exams, even they may get high grades. Sometimes, it was hard for teachers to discover their cheating behaviors. It was so unfair to the students who did not cheat. Some students claimed that they would feel quite nervous in the exams, and sometimes they would be so nervous to remember what they had learned in class. Without pressure, they would surely perform well in the learning activities in class. Some students who got good grades in exams, but they seldom took part in class learning activities.
      Some students also feared to present themselves in class. When they were asked why they hated to answer questions voluntarily in class, most of them said they were shy and they were afraid of being laughed by classmates when they make mistakes. Some of them just said though they knew the answers, they just didn't like to show up in class. The results of preliminary investigation proved that there were some connections between the students' behavior in class and their motivation.
      4.2.2Rationale
      Motivation is the strong desire of learners to learn a foreign language, and different learners have different incentives. The motivation of foreign language learning is one of human behavior motivation. It performs as a strong desire of foreign language learning and thirst for knowledge. As for second language learning, motivation can be divided into intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Debates have pitted extrinsic motivators (e.g. rewards/punishment) against intrinsic motivation in attempting to determine what best motivates individuals. Intrinsic motivation reflects the desire to do something because it is enjoyable. If intrinsically motivated, people would not be worried about external rewards such as praise or awards. Extrinsic motivation reflects the desire to do something because of external rewards such as awards, prize, and praise. People who are extrinsically motivated may not enjoy certain activities. They may only wish to engage in certain activities because they wish to receive some external reward. So far, to encourage students to learn English, especially those who do not have interest in English learning, it is better to raise their extrinsic motivation by compliments, and rewards. By accumulation of such a pattern, it is hoped that extrinsic motivation can turn into intrinsic motivation. Using formative assessment in daily teaching is a way to arouse extrinsic motivation. Its purpose is to encourage students to participate in learning activities and cultivate good learning habits by giving them rewards and appreciation.
      4.2.3Review of Hypothesis
      The investigation the author conducted in the beginning of the semester showed that students did not show great passion in participating in activities in class. Students complained about the unfairness of summative assessment. Furthermore, for the lack of motivation, they did not have passion for the learning activities in class. By combining formative assessment with summative assessment, current problem is to be solved or optimized to a certain extent. To be specific, there are three questions to be answered.
      1.How should teachers apply multi-assessment to primary English teaching to promote students' learning interest?
      2.How should teachers apply multi-assessment to primary English teaching to help students develop good learning habits?
      3.How should teachers apply multi-assessment to primary English teaching to improve students' learning achievements?
      4.3Plan Making
      The multi-assessment combines formative assessment with summative assessment. There are four parts in formative assessment and two parts in summative assessments. The formative assessment consists of the assessments for language skills, learning attitude, culture consciousness, and learning habits. Language skill is based on teacher assessment and peer assessment. Learning attitude assessment is the combination of teacher assessment and student self assessment. Culture consciousness is evaluated by students themselves. Learning habit is a combination of students' assessment with parents' assessment.
      Each part takes up ten percent of the final score. In the summative assessment, the final paper test and oral English test take up sixty percentages of the final score. In the formative assessment, four aspects are valued, taking up forty percentages of the final score, which is described in Table 4-1
      Table 4-1 Assessment Mode and Content
      Assessment Aspects Percentage
      Summative assessment Final test paper 60%
      Oral English Test
      Formative assessment Learning Attitude 40%
      Learning Habit
      Culture consciousness
      Language Skill
       
      Formative assessment criteria for language skills:
      1.Language knowledge
      (1)to recognize international phonetic symbols;
      (2)to read the sentences correctly;
      (3)to spell words correctly;
      (4)to carry out language practice activities;
      (5)to give description of certain situations and answer questions in full sentences;
      (6)to sum up the main idea of a given paragraph.
      2.Language application
      (1)to use phonetic symbols to read words;
      (2)to complete language practice in the context;
      (3)to use grammar rules correctly;
      (4)to describe people or things in the given context;
      (5)be able to present one's opinion and ideas based on certain topics.
      Criteria for assessing learning attitude:
      Learning attitude:
      1.Participation in classroom learning activities
      (1)to participate in the activities, such as imitating and pronouncing English letters properly;
      (2)to participate in activities of imitating and recognizing English words, and participate in activities of classifying English words;
      (3)to participate in English game activities, English textbook drama performances and themed-based English short plays.
      2.Listening and reading
      (1)to participate in international phonetic symbols learning activities, and imitate and read basic sentence patterns;
      (2)to recognize English words according to the pronunciation rules;
      (3)to listen and repeat short sentences and identify the meanings of the sentences according to the recordings;
      (4)to get the basic information in the short listening passages.
      3.Speaking and writing
      (1)to be willing to learn by imitating phonetic symbols and reading words and phrases;
      (2)to use the words learned to describe the situation to others and communicate with others in English;
      (3)to pay attention to the expression of lexical rules in a specific context and pay attention to the expression of lexical changes in practical activities;
      (4)to participate in English sentence imitation and learn to use the target language in real situations;
      (5)to retell short stories in English based on the textbook and express personal opinions.
      The focus of the evaluation of primary school English teaching should shift from the evaluation of knowledge and skills to the interests and habits of learning.
      Formative assessment criteria for culture consciousness
      Learning habit:
      1. Listening habits
      (1)be willing to listen attentively to teachers' instruction and peers' performances in class;
      (2)be able to identify the meanings and morphological changes of words in communication;
      (3)be able to judge the meaning of words in language practice;
      (4)be willing to listen to others' expressions and understand their meanings and listen and respond to questions.
      (5)be willing to listen to the recordings and get the basic information of the texts.
      2. Speaking habits
      (1)to imitate words according to pronunciation;
      (2)to use the words learned to complete tasks;
      (3)to communicate with others in interactive activities;
      (4)to raise questions, give instructions, and answers question in learning activities;
      (5)to conduct meaningful communication with others in the form of discourse.
      3.Reading habits
      (1)to imitate and read phonetic symbols, words, sentences and paragraphs;
      (2)to read the words in the process of reading;
      (3)to understand the meaning of words according to the reading context;
      (4)to understand sentence meaning in reading context;
      (5)to read short paragraphs fluently.
      4.Writing habits
      (1)to write phonetic symbols and spell words correctly;
      (2)to complete the continuation tasks of stories according to the context;
      (3)to describe in full sentences according to the topic or picture;
      (4)to copy and write the new vocabulary and learn by heart.
       
      4.4Plan Implementation
      Generally speaking, primary English teaching multi-assessment includes five aspects: language knowledge, language skill, culture consciousness, emotional attitude, and learning strategy.
      Table 4-2 Assessment Aspects
      Assessment aspect Assessment type Assessment subjects
      Teacher assessment Selfassessment Peer assessment Parent assessment
      Language knowledge Summative Exam Test Homework Performance appraisal
      Language skill Formative Listening assessment program Student learning reflection Writing assessment program Oral assessment program
      Culture consciousness Formative Cultural conscious -ness Cultural conscious -ness Cultural conscious -ness Cultural conscious -ness
      Emotional attitude Formative Emotional attitude Emotional attitude Emotional attitude Emotional attitude
      Learning strategy Formative Learning strategy Learning strategy Learning strategy Learning strategy
       
       
      Table 4-3 Mark Distribution of Assessment System
      Item Content Assessment emphasis Assessment format
      Average score -Language skill (10 points) 1.Classroom performance
      2.Class attendance
      3.Online independent learning Learning process, learning strategy, emotional attitude, etc Performance, selfassessment, mutual assessment, teacher assessment
      Daily test
      (10
      points) 1.Random test
      2.Unit test
      3.Mid-term test
      (the above form can be freely chosen by teachers and can be accessed through the online learning system or written test) Language knowledge and skills, learning strategies, etc Quantitative assessment
      Study files (5 points) 1.The homework
      2.Notes
      3.Learning experience or journal 4.Self-assessment/mutual assessment form 5.Materials that can reflect personal English learning achievements Students' learning trajectory, learning strategy, emotional attitude, comprehensive skills, etc Behavior performance assessment, self assessment, Peer assessment, teacher assessment
      Team project (5 points) 1.PPT theme demonstration
      2.English role play performance
      3.English newspapers
      4.English speech Language competence, comprehensive skills, cultural awareness Assessment, self assessment, Peer assessment, teacher assessment
      Final grade Final oral test (10points) 1.Read
      2.Answer questions
      3.Dialogue
      4.Group discussion Basic oral communication skills, accent and tune teacher assessment
      Final paper test (60points) 1. Listening 2. Reading comprehension 3. Vocabulary and grammar
      4. Writing 5. Translation 6. Comprehensive skills Basic language knowledge and comprehensive language skills Teacher assessment Summative assessment
      Assessment on Class Activity
      Table 4-4 is the presentation of assessment for class performance, which is part 1 of the language skill of formative assessment. In this part, teacher assessment takes up 50% of the total and students' self assessment takes up 20% and peer assessment takes up 30% of the total. In this semester, there are four times of group work in the assessment, and the average score of will be part of the final test score.
      Table 4-4 Assessment on Class Activity
      Item Scores Self Peer Teacher
      10 8 6 4 2
      Answer question actively
      Actively participate in class activities
      Listen carefully and take part in the discussion seriously
      Outstanding performance in group activities
      Be open to peer feedback
       
      Table 4-4 was sent to students after mid-term test and final term. The average score of this part takes up 10% of the final test score. The standard items in this assessment are to encourage students to participate in class activity and practice their communication ability. Speaking and listening are valued in this assessment, and communication ability is trained in the class activity.
       
      Table 4-5 Assessment for learning attitude
      Assessment item Scores Self Peer Teacher
      10 8 6 4 2
      Various learning methods
      Reasonable Study time planning
      Make your own study plan
      Ask for help if there is a need
      Use the learning resources around you
      Carry out learning reflection
       
      Table 4-5 shows the assessment for learning attitude of formative assessment. In this assessment, Self assessment takes up 30% of the score, peer assessment 40% and teacher assessment 30%.
      The item in this table is to encourage students to develop a good learning habit. First of all, students are encouraged to learn English in various ways and use learning resources, so they can stimulate their multi-intelligences. Reasoning study time is designed to motivate students to do homework and other practice after school. Students are encouraged to make their own plan because the author intends to make them reflect on their own learning status and target. What's more, students should ask for help when they are in need, so they can have a good learning habit.
      Table 4-6 Assessment for Culture knowledge
      Name Date
      Class Score Check Points
      Understand the history of British and American culture
      Be familiar with important British and American holidays
      Understand the interpersonal customs of
      English-speaking countries
      Understand the similarities and differences between Chinese and foreign cultures
      Can express praise, request, in appropriate English
       
      Table 4-6 is to check the learning status of western culture. There are five aspects in this table. It is a special quiz test on class, and students need to finish the quiz in pairs. They can ask the questions to each other on class and the scale is within the contents learned in this semester. The pair is selected by random, and the partner students have is different from the ones they usually practice with. The result of this quiz accounts for 5 points in final score.
      Homework design
      In this semester, the author designed homework which required feedback from parents. The table was printed and sent to parents. Parents also received the guidelines of homework assessment at the parents meeting. They were told how to evaluate students' learning process and result. Especially, parents were told to pay attention to the attitude of learning. Parents were also told that there was no need to give full marks to students to protect their children. The right way to support children was giving them fair comments according to the principles. The culture consciousness awareness self assessment was sent to students on April, May and June, when they did not have tests. They had more time to learn more knowledge of culture.
      Parents' feedback is based on the homework and it is found that some parents really care about the performance of their children. Here is a sample from students' parents (Table 4-7). In the feedback of parents, there is no space for students to give score to children. All they need to do is to describe the real status of students learning at home. TherestpartofworkwillbedonebytheEnglishteacher.
      Table 4-7 Sample of Parents' Feedback
      Record the project Parents' record Parents' comment
      Place living room The child knew that his oral English was not good enough, and he practiced carefully. Moreover, he also took the initiative to recite the content ofhis own practice for me, and his pronunciation was clear.
      Time 19:00-20:00
      Practice way Imitation and read
      Practice attitude Read loudly
      Practice results Learn by heart what you read
      Is there any progress Voice intonation improved
       
      Final Test
      Students were required to take Oral Test a week before the final paper test. The final test paper was held by the school and the schedule was decided by the school. After the paper test, students were required to fill the post questionnaires. The final scores were recorded as the combination of summative score and formative score. After the final paper test, several students did the interview and shared their opinions on the multi-assessment applied in this semester.
       
      Table 4-8 Schedule of Plan of Assessment
      Time Self Assessment Peer Assessment Parents Assessment
      Week1 1 1 1
      Week 2 0 1 0
      Week 3 0 0 1
      Week 4 0 2 0
      Week 5 1 0 1
      Week 6 0 1 0
      Week 7 0 1 1
      Week 8 0 0 0
      Week 9 1 1 1
      Week 10 0 0 0
      Week 11 0 1 1
      Week 12 0 1 0
      Week 13 1 1 1
      Week 14 0 2 0
      Week 15 0 0 1
      Week 16 0 1 0
       
      4.5Plan Adjustment
      During the whole process of implementation, the author has made three adjustments. After one month of plan implementation, some students said that they had problems in the parents' assessment and homework. They expressed that their parents did not understand English. Some told me their parents had no time for them, so the author created a group on Wechat and guided parents to use the feedback form and removed some standards they felt hard to test. Thus the main standard for parents to evaluate is the attitude of students. Besides, the culture knowledge can be checked by parents as well. Students can share culture knowledge in Chinese. In the original plan, culture assessment blank was supposed be finished by classmates. The author made adjustment and made parents do the assessment ofculture knowledge.
      Students took much time to give scores to classmates, so the periods of role play was extended. The task for class was not finished for the first time, so the author chose to adapt the class activity according to the contents of textbook and leave some mission as homework for teams. After several weeks, the students got familiar with assessment and the time was saved for more contents.
      Another problem the author met was that it was hard to motivate the students whose English was poor. If all the students were valued by one standard, it was hard for them to gain high scores, so the author raised the part of learning attitude to encourage them. Besides, the author chose to give the students who made huge progress some extra points to award them. For those who felt shy to answer questions on class, the author usually asked them to do the presentation firstly.
      4.6The Results of the Implementation of Multi-assessment and Discussion
      4.6.1Results and Discussion of Questionnaires
      The pre-questionnaire aims to get a general understanding of the students' learning status, and attitude to the current assessment method. The post-questionnaire aims to get some information of students' reactions to the new assessment method.
      Q1, Q2, Q8 and Q9 in the two questionnaires are exactly the same. Through comparison, it can be found that students became more interested in English. In the beginning ofthis semester, 15% ofthe students were very interested in English and 50% of students had a little interest in English. 10% of the students showed no interest in English. After the experiment, students who were very interested in English rose up to 35%. It is evident that the number of students who have enthusiasm in English grows. Still, the students who showed no interest in English grew from 10% to 15%. The reason may be due to the changes of assessment or the difficulty growth of English.
      In Question 2, in the beginning of this semester, 25% of the students found English very difficult. 20% of the class thought English is a bit hard for them. Only 10% of the students claim that English is an easy course. After the experiment, students who thought English was very hard dropped from 25% to 17.5%. Students who thought English easy rose from 10% to 17.5%. It can be proved that most students find English easier than before, which implies that the new assessment method does make positive impact on students' English leaning.
      As for Q8, it is a question intended to examine parents' attitude towards the new assessment method and the changes in their attitude. In the beginning of the semester, 35% of the parents always evaluated their English learning performance. 52.5% of the parents sometimes involved in their English learning performance. After the semester, the results of questionnaire showed parents became more concerned with students' English learning. 60% of the parents always got involved in the assessment of students' English learning. Besides, parents cared more about students' learning status. There was no parents who didn't get involved in their children's learning.
      In Q9, 72.5% of the students sometimes responded to the assessment given by teacher, and 7.5% of the students stated they seldom responded to teacher's assessment. After the experiment, students would actively respond to teachers' assessment. Students were more motivated to improve their study timely according to the evaluation given by teachers or classmates. This has proved that multi-assessment has positive influence on students' learning motivation.
      In the investigation, Q3 was designed to learn about the students' learning habits reviewing lessons after class. 22.5% of the students chose to memorize the new vocabulary in the textbook, including the pronunciation and spelling. 52.5% of the students tended to do exercises attached to the textbook. 15% of the students read English picture books or other net English resources after class and only 10% of them listened to English songs or watched English movies. It implies that culture study should be enhanced.
      In answering Q4 “Do you know the learning strategy?” 60% of the students did not know anything about learning strategy. 27.5% of the students basically understood learning strategy. Students in Grade Six have learned English for at least three years. Some early starters have learned English for more than six years. It is understandable that students mostly have a basic concept of learning strategy. However, the result also shows that students need to work on their learning strategy as well.
      As for Q5, 25% sensed that the teacher should pay attention to the cultivation of English skills in English learning in most cases. 45% of the students thought their English teacher only paid attention to cultivating language skills occasionally.
      Q7 was designed to detect the motivation of learning English. 60% of the students learned English in order to pass the exam. 25% of the them found English useful and learned it. Only 15% of the students liked English out of their own interest. The motivation to pass exam or special function belongs to external factors. Interest is an internal factor. The result implies that teachers should make efforts to help students transfer the external motivation to internal motivation through multi-assessment.
      The Questions from Q3 to Q7 in the post-questionnaire were designed to prove the effects of multi-assessment. 45% of the class found the teacher has more communication with them in class than ever before and 25% of the students found that the communication between the teacher and the students has been slightly increased. 50% of the students begin to take the initiative to speak or participate in learning activities in class this semester, which is much higher compared with the past. During the implementation of multi-assessment, students were required to take part in classroom activities. Furthermore, it shows that 60% of the student found themselves spending more time on English than last term. When asked whether students can evaluate themselves, 37.5% of the students thought they could and 42.5% of them thought they could do it sometimes. The rest students thought they could not be able to evaluate themselves. 12.5% of the students believed they could evaluate others properly.
      77.5% of the students thought they could evaluate others properly sometimes. And the rest of them had no confidence in doing it. The results of these questions show that there are still problems for self evaluation and peer assessment.
      The answers to Q10 show that 75% of the students believed they have made progress to certain extent, especially in listening and speaking skills. As for Q11, more than 50% students have improved their confidence in English learning.
      In terms of Question 13, more students claimed that they had more time communicating with other classmates in English learning. This indicates that they have developing good learning habits to a certain degree.
      Table 4-9 Results of the Questionnaire
      A B C D A B C D
      1 15.00% 50.00% 25.00% 10.00% 6 20 10 4
      2 25.00% 20.00% 45.00% 10.00% 10 8 18 4
      3 22.50% 52.50% 15.00% 10.00% 9 21 6 4
      4 60.00% 27.50% 13.50% 0.00% 24 11 5 0
      5 0.00% 60.00% 27.50% 12.50% 0 24 11 5
      6 7.50% 25.00% 45.00% 22.50% 3 10 18 9
      7 60.00% 25.00% 15.00% 0.00% 24 10 6 0
      8 35.00% 52.50% 12.50% 0.00% 14 21 5 0
      9 20.00% 72.50% 7.50% 0.00% 8 29 3 0
      10 22.50% 67.50% 10.00% 0.00% 9 27 4 0
      11 12.50% 27.50% 42.50% 17.50% 5 11 17 7
      1 35.00% 32.50% 17.50% 15.00% 14 13 7 6
      2 17.50% 22.50% 42.50% 17.50% 7 9 17 7
      3 45.00% 22.50% 10.00% 22.50% 18 9 4 9
      4 50.00% 22.50% 5.00% 22.50% 20 9 2 9
      5 60.00% 30.00% 10.00% 0.00% 24 12 4 0
      6 37.50% 47.50% 15.00% 0.00% 15 19 6 0
      7 12.50% 77.50% 10.00% 0.00% 5 31 4 0
      8 60.00% 27.50% 12.50% 0.00% 24 11 5 0
      9 45.00% 35.00% 17.50% 2.50% 18 14 7 1
      10 35.00% 52.50% 12.50% 0.00% 14 21 5 0
      11 20.00% 72.50% 7.50% 0.00% 8 29 3 0
      12 25.00% 40.00% 25.00% 10.00% 10 18 8 4
      13 22.50% 52.50% 15.00% 10.00% 9 21 6 4
      4.6.2Results and Discussion of Observation
      In the first English class ofthe semester, it is declared that a new evaluation system would be applied in English class. When students were informed that they would be evaluated and graded by multiple assessing means, that is, a combination of teacher assessment, peer assessment and parent assessment, they got excited and expectant. When they are told that their parents would also be involved in evaluating their learning achievements, they had various reactions. Some of them showed perplexed looks and some ofthem started to complain.
      Date March 6, 2017
      Observation
      Record When I told students they would assess their peer students or themselves based on their performances in class, students felt excited about the news and looked happy. When I told students some evaluation should be done by parents according to their real performances, they had various reactions. Some students said that it would be hard for their parents to do evaluation in English because they don't have much knowledge of English. Then I explained that I would make it easy for their parents, but students still felt unsure and a bit doubtful.
      Date March 8, 2017
       
       
      Observation
      Record It was the first time that students learn to do peer assessment. I showed them the guidelines to evaluate others on PPT. Some of the students seemed quite serious about this system and guidelines and some of them seemed careless. The good thing is that some students who are shy and seldom present themselves in class raise their hands and seize chances to answer questions, because they want to get higher score.
      Date March 14, 2017
      Observation
      Record. It was the second time for class activities. When I told students those who take the initiative to do presentations or participate actively in learning activities would get some extra points in the overall evaluation. Then some students become quite active and initiative. More students show strong interest in learning activities or group works, even those who are rather shy or introverted. For example, a shy girl, Li Ying, and her partner, did the role play in front of the class for the first time, and I thought it was a huge step for her.
       
      Judging from the observation journals, we can say that the formative assessment does encourage students and help them to develop better learning habits.
      4.6.3Results and Discussion of Journals
      Date 2017.3.6
      Class Class 1 Grade 6
      Task Module 1 Unit 1
      This was the first class of this semester. It is necessary to inform the students of the multi-assessment and clarify how it works in English class. When I told them that their daily performances in class would be evaluated and graded and would take up certain percentage in the final score. They mostly looked surprised. Then I explained the new assessment method to them. They felt excited when they heard they would have chance to assess other classmates. However, some of their exciting faces disappeared when they heard that their parents should also be part of this assessment system. There may be some problems before involving parents in this assessment system. One student raised her hand and said that his parents do not know any English. And another student told me that her parents are quite busy. These problems set me thinking. I know some adjustments need to be made according to the real situation.
      From this journal, it is found that students showed their interest in the formative assessment and students hoped to be part of the assessment. The attitude of students gave the author confidence in applying this new assessment in this semester. This was a real comfort to the author at the beginning of the experiment.
      Date 2017.3.10
      Class Class 1 Grade 6
      Task Module 1 Unit2
      In this class, students were required to learn to evaluate others. They were given a blank sheet before class and asked them to evaluate their peer students' performances in class.
      After the scoring sheets were handed in, I read all the scores students gave to others. Some were extremely high and some of them were extremely low. It was weird and then I figured out that some students gave their friends high score without any hesitation. It is a problem that students can not evaluate others objectively. I tell them that they should avoid subjective judgment and the highest and lowest score would be deleted in calculation..
       
       
      It was the first problem revealed in this experiment, and it was one ofthe problems I once predicted. Therefore, when I found this problem, I applied the solution I had prepared.
      Date 2017.3.14
      Class Class 1 Grade 6
      Task Module 2 Unit1
      This was the first time I got feedback from parents. Parents seemed to be unclear about what they should fill in the blank sheet. So I decided to make the work easier for parents. In the QQ group exclusively set for parents, I gave detailed explanations to show how to evaluate their children learning performances and achievements in an objective way. Considering that some parents do not know English, I decided to make them value some index other than language skills, such as learning attitude and learning time.
       
      While carrying the new parent evaluation plan, the problems appeared. Informing them the new rules of evaluation was quite a challenge. Parents had so many questions while they showed great enthusiasm. It cost much time on communication with parents and I started the discussion group to make them communicate with each other.
      Date 2017.3.18
      Class Class 1 Grade 6
      Task Module 2 Unit2
      It was the second week of this semester. Some students seemed to realize how this new assessment system worked. There were more volunteers in class now. Some of them prepared for their team work. Apparently their motivation was sourced from the formative test. Thus, I thought changes should happen to my schedule and planned to cancel the class activities on the third week and ask questions on class. I planned to make it a quiz for the class.
       
       
      In the classes of this week, I found some pleasant changes happening to my students. It also convinced me that the new assessment truly gave them more motivation than the days before. Students became more active on class. I hope they can get better in the next weeks.
      Date 2017.3.22
      Class Class 1 Grade 6
      Task Module 3 Unit1
      Today I decided to give students a vocabulary test to the class to see if they have mastered the new words in Unit 1. After the test, students were asked to check each other's paper and mark the scores. They felt quite excited and they set to work seriously. After the peer assessment, I collected all the papers. When I reviewed that after class, I found a problem. It seemed that some students tried to help their friends if they happened to mark the paper of his/her friend, so he corrected the misspelled words and gave him a high score. To deal this problem, each time, I would let students swap the papers at random.
       
      Date 2017.3.28
      Class Class 1 Grade 6
      Task Module 3 Unit1
      Teaching time is quite limited. Sometimes, lessons were left behind the schedule somehow. This problem should be fixed. I found it was hard to share western culture knowledge and I decided to make the culture knowledge as part of presentation or homework. Besides, I told parents to cooperate with me and check their knowledge of western culture. I told students to share culture with parents and friends. This helped save some teaching time.
       
       
      I realized that my teaching schedule is left behind because I spent more time on the activities on class for students to evaluate others. So I must figure out some plans to save time and made the plan work.
      Date 2017.4.7
      Class Class 2 Grade 6
      Task Module 4 Unit1
      All the feedback I got from the students as well as parents indicate that there are some positive changes in students' English learning. The std deviation of scores got smaller. It means students gradually have some sense of giving other evaluation. It is happy to see this. Still, several students showed little interest in this new system. More efforts need to be made. Their English were still underdeveloped. I should find some ways to encourage them to develop interest in English learning. I decided to give them some bonus in scores. Since learning attitude and habit were calculated, their scores could be raised if they try hard. Once their efforts were recognized, they may be stimulated. So I told students that three students who make the biggest progress in this semester will be rewarded with extra points in the overall evaluation.
       
      Generally speaking, students changed gradually and so did parents of students. The whole assessment plan has been changed continuously according to the real situation of students. Students mostly responded to the multi-assessment actively and parents cooperate with the author. Though there are some exceptions, the result collected still tested the hypothesis.
      4.6.4 Results and Discussion of Tests
      Pair N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
      Score Pre-test 40 66.5000 4.27140 0.60407
      Post-test 40 72.1428 3.91490 0.55379
      Two tests were conducted and a comparison of the results of the two tests is made with a view to find out whether there are changes in students' learning achievements and the results are shown in the chart above. As it is shown that the average score of the final test of the last semester is 66.50, and the average score of final test in this semester is 72.14.
      After the experiment of multi-assessment, most students' English writing ability has been improved, with the average of the post-test more 5.6 higher than that of the pre-test. This is an obvious gap of the total scores 100. This comparison shows that the multi-assessment has improved the performance of students to a great extent. The standard deviation of the two classes is 4.27140 and 3.91490.
      4.6.5 Results and Discussion of Interviews
      There were six students who were interviewed. The contents of interview are displayed in the Appendix Three.
      Table 4-10 Transcripts of Students' Interviews
      Students Attitude toward the new assessment method Improvements Suggestion
      1 In favour of Attitude, performance, habit It is hoped that the multi-assessment goes on in future.
      2 In favour of Attitude, performance, habit Some students do not play fairly when evaluating others.
      3 In favour of Attitude, performance, habit Excellent performances should be be rewarded with prizes, such as stickers.
       
       
      4 In favour of Attitude, performance, habit Teacher needs to offer more guidance on how to evaluate others' performance.
      5 In favour of performance, habit It is hard to make sure that all the parents are fair and and know how to evaluate their kids' performance objectively. The percentage of parents' assessment should be reduced.
      6 In favour of Attitude, performance, habit This new assessment method needs to be more effective.
      7 Disapproval None Some students are not fairly treated, especially the introverted students.
      8 In favour of Attitude and habit Some parents lack of English language knowledge, so their involvement in the assessing work should be reduced.
      9 In favour of Attitude, performance, habit None
      10 In favour of Attitude, performance, habit The new method does not work for some students.
      According to the results of the interviews, it can be concluded that all the interviewees are in favour of the multi-assessment method. To varying degrees, all the students got some improvement in performance, motivation and learning habit. Some of them found themselves more engaged in English class activities than before. Student 10 is the representative of English course and she found out that some students showed obvious changes in their learning attitude and homework performance. Students 1 and students 9 were strongly supportive to this new assessment method. Students 9 thought she made huge progress in English study after this new method was applied because she became more motivated and developed better learning habits. Student 4 felt some changes in his learning habits. He said ‘Now, in addition to memorizing English words and reciting the texts, I take to watch English TV programs and English movies, and enjoy listening to English songs, which are very conductive to improving English, and it is very exciting to find the same English words or sentences that I learned from English programmes or movies in the exam papers. Now I take the initiative to speak English with my classmates after class. We communicate in English and have conversations in English and so on. I knew these methods before, but I didn't use them. Now I regret it. Moreover, I also began to make my own study plan, and I won't go to play until I finish my study tasks every day.”
      Student 9 and 10 also gave their suggestions. Student 9 said “The homework of this semester makes me feel more self-disciplined, and for this change I feel very happy. For me, my grades have been greatly improved, not only because of the exam system joined in the usual, the final exam results also promoted a lot than last semester, I think because the new assessment method makes me work harder. I feel the English class is far more interesting than before.”
      Students 10 is the representative of English course, she plays the role of an assistant for the teacher. She said “I have the feeling that in this semester, many students' attitude toward English learning have changed a lot, because they are beginning to treat English more seriously than before, so their participation in learning activities have been increased and their performances in class have been improved. I think this method is effective for most students, except that a few do not love learning English, but it is not too obvious. However, many students become more active in class than before, and their homework is much better. On the whole, our class has improved a lot in English learning after this semester.”
      However, some students pointed out some problems in this new method and need to be addressed and improved, especially the fairness of evaluation. The problems should be noticed.
      Some students claimed there were some problems in parents' feedback. Student 8 pointed out that parents were eager to get involved in their kids' English study, but sometimes they failed to understand the evaluation criteria. Some parents could only evaluate the learning attitudes of students and some parents gave their children high score on purpose. These would be unfair to other students. Student 8 said “This semester examination system has changed greatly, and the performance in daily study is recorded as part of evaluation. In addition, my parents became very active and cooperative with the teachers because of this system. However, my problem is that my parents are not familiar with English and cannot make the right judgment of my attitude towards learning. I think this situation will also happen in other families. I think the proportion of parent evaluation should be reduced.”
      4.7Reflection
      Speaking of ‘assessment', we may think of ‘test' or ‘score', in fact, which belongs to summative assessment. With the deepening reform of education, it is generally acknowledged that in language class, summative assessment does do more harm than good to students' acquisition of the target language acquisition and overall development. There is a better assessment system, which is formative assessment. However, neither of the two can work well alone, so in this study, the two systems are combined to avoid the disadvantages.
      Firstly, because formative assessment is to evaluate students' learning achievements throughout the whole learning process, and in contrast summative assessment is to evaluate students by examinations and tests. Comparatively speaking, formative assessment is more difficult to carry out because it involves subjective attitude and personal opinions, so it might lack of objectivity. Therefore, in the application of multi-assessment, teachers must overcome bias and subjectivity and try to make the assessment fair and objective as much as possible.
      Secondly, during the process of action research, some students are less receptive to role play and team work and have an indifferent attitude. Through interviews with students, we can learn that some practices may hurt students' self-esteem. After all, they are treated differently in the same group, and students tend to be frustrated, although teachers try to carry out hidden stratification within the class.
      Besides, in primary school, in the design and use of the formative assessment approach, the teacher should not only take many things into consideration, such as students' psychology and emotion, their language level, learning attitude, and cooperation ability, but other factors, such as the components of study group and individual differences, need to take into account, so as to make the formative assessment lively, reliable and effective.
      Thirdly, the purpose of formative assessment is not only to check students' learning results, but also to improve students' learning habits. Effective topographic evaluation is far from adding a little observation and quiz to the existing teaching method. Instead, it is necessary to study the main parts of the teaching plan, and constantly adjust the teaching according to the assessment results to ensure that all students have the opportunity to develop their potentials.
      Fourthly, we should consider proportion of time, since formative assessment activities occupy the whole teaching of the class, we should avoid using too tedious assessment procedures, in order that formative assessment does not occupy too much teaching time to evaluate.
      Chapter Five Conclusion
      5.1Major Findings
      First of all, students' interest in English learning is raised during the process of multi-assessment. The multi-assessment makes students compete in a fairer way than summative test. Furthermore, students' motivation is stimulated in this semester. Most of the students feel encouraged when they know formative assessment accounts for a part of their final score. Some of them transfer the external motivation to internal motivation and develop good learning habits. They become more self-disciplined under the supervision of their parents. The evaluation scale of students' emotional attitude makes the evaluation of emotional attitude become quantitative and operable. In the process of the experiment, students' enthusiasm for learning English is enhanced. Students are more aware of their problems in learning attitude through mutual evaluation. The dynamic division of learning tasks is clear and the task is completed smoothly. The use of emotional attitude evaluation program helps strengthen and deepen the relationship and friendliness between students and create a more democratic and friendly learning atmosphere. The good values of mutual help meet the requirements of the new curriculum standards on emotional attitude.
      Secondly, students begin to take initiative and active participation in interactive learning activities, so step by step, their performances have been greatly improved. The average final test score has been increased. Besides, the results of questionnaires indicate that students' confidence in English learning has also been improved. As they make more efforts to study English, their performances get better.
      Meanwhile, after the experiment, students develop better learning habits. Students also get more supervision from parents. They are also required to share culture knowledge with peers or their parents. In order to present themselves well in group work, students have to consult some reference resources through internet or other means, so they can have something information to share, and thus in this way, their autonomous learning ability has been cultivated. In class, they would take turns to present their group work, so their English learning ability has been promoted to a greater extent. Through cooperation with peers, teachers and parents, students have learned to share information with others and communicate with other after class, so naturally, their communicative ability has been developed. All of these help promote their English learning achievements.
      5.2Pedagogical Implications
      5.2.1 Designing Assessment System Catering to Primary students
      First of all, teachers should be able to design a system out of the frame given by school and it should be suitable for their students. This is the prerequisite for the implementation of teaching evaluation reform. The schools should support teachers to make changes so the teachers have the motivation to carry out the evaluation innovation reform, according to the characteristics of students and aptitude. Secondly, teachers' perception and cognition of teaching assessment has a direct impact on assessment. In practice, teachers should have a scientific evaluation view and effective evaluation, and they should know how to conduct classroom observation and how to record and analyze and how to ensure the reliability and evaluation validity. Therefore, it is necessary to train teachers in teaching evaluation, which can be done to avoid and reduce subjective factors and arbitrariness in the evaluation, so that the evaluation is more fair and objective.
      5.2.2Strengthening Communication with Parents
      In the research process, the author found that some problems should be paid attention to in the future research. Cooperation of parents is important. The application of the theory of multiple intelligences in primary school English teaching is different from the traditional way of teaching. Parents need to have a comprehensive and profound understanding of their children, and new teachers can get to know the children through parents quickly. Parents keep students company after class and it will be quite beneficial if parents know the intelligences of students. When teachers have communication with parents, they can get to know the intelligence strengths and weaknesses more quickly.
      Meanwhile, teachers should organize regular communication with parents during the experiment, by collecting parents' evaluation, feedback and suggestions. In this way, the parents are encouraged to learn the multiple intelligences of students from time to time, so as to make corresponding adjustments in the teaching. Through regular communication with parents, the understanding and cooperation of parents will be of great help to the teaching based on the theory of multiple intelligences.
      5.2.3Taking Students as the Main Body of English Teaching
      Students, as the subject of learning activities, should be given chances to understand their own learning effects, learning strategies, advantages and disadvantages. Students should have a habit of reflection and find out their own problems, so they can try to find a way to deal with them. In addition to traditional teacher evaluations, students should be encouraged to evaluate each other. Constructivism emphasizes that cooperative learning and mutual evaluation are important because they can strengthen the communication between students, make up for each other's strengths, and create a good learning atmosphere. Therefore, the teacher needs to encourage students to reflect on their studies by themselves or in groups.
      The ultimate goal of education activity is to achieve the overall and active development of all students, and if students fail to be the subjective of education, the goal of teaching can not be achieved. Therefore, students should continue to evaluate development status. The key to develop students' subjectivity in evaluation lies in their active participation. Transforming from the external evaluation target gradually into conscious requirements can finally achieve the development of students.
      5.3Limitations of the Study
      There are some limitations in this research.
      (1)Because of the limited time, the experiment only lasted for four months, so the experimental effects and the influences are obviously not enough. The result of this experiment could be optimized if more time were spent on this research.
      (2)Only 40 students participated in the experiment, which only represent a small part of the English learners. That affects the universality of the experimental conclusion.
      (3)The study was done at Jiankou Primary School. It remains to be tested whether the feasibility and effectiveness of the multi-assessment model that aims to improve English ability may represent the situation of the whole country.
      5.4Suggestions for Future Studies
      Firstly, the key to the reform of curriculum assessment system is the integration of assessment and termination requirements. Major changes have taken place in foreign language courses and foreign language teaching modes. The traditional teaching model regards the teaching process as the transmission of knowledge and evaluation is the end of the finished product. Therefore, examination results become the concern of students and parents. The negative effects from over-reliance on finality assessment should not be ignored. The emphasis is on cultivating students' language application ability. More studies should be done to find out the negative effects of single summative and then measures should be taken to avoid them.
      Secondly, the importance of multivariate assessment in the first phase of the experiment, during the research, the author noticed various students' personality and intelligence types. Since the time was short, there was not enough corresponding
      information to conclude related results. This is time-consuming and laborious, and also baffles some students from making progress. The personality of students should be considered in the future studies.
      In addition, the development of evaluation tools should be more scientific, more reasonable and easier to operate. The design of evaluation tools should not be based on teachers' subjective intention, and it should fully rely on curriculum standards, evaluation guidelines and basic teaching requirements. The further research can be based on the development of the diversity of tools.
      This thesis combines the learning status of Chinese students and multiple intelligences in order to establish a set of teaching mode suitable for Chinese students. In the future, it is necessary to figure out how to introduce theory of multiple intelligences more deeply and accurately, and apply it to China new curriculum reform. It is hoped that a deeper understanding of the theory of multiple intelligences will be achieved in the future research.
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